Peerage of Science

Case study details

Biological Sciences
Until the s, Maasai chose to settle and graze away from the Mara Plains Waller, Consultant National pour appuyer la conduite des exercices de simulation. Derek Hatfield competes in a solo round-the-world ocean race, this year finishing in third place. We must distinguish, however, between cost-effectiveness from a public and from a private perspective. Even a slight increase in the price of water or energy results in pressure to conserve water. This system is now generating multiple crises across the world that over the next 20 years threaten to converge in an unprecedented and unimaginable way, unless we take drastic action now.

Search within Biological Sciences:

Procurement Notices

Staffan Roos, Nicholas I. Sim, Davide Scridel, David Anderson. List indicates the work has been initially submitted, reviewed and revised in Peerage of Science.

Further revisions and peer review organized by journal may have altered the article after Peerage of Science peer review. Peerage of Science Tel: Subscribe to Peerage of Science email newsletter: Genetic identification of perpetrator and implications in small populations.

Lithuania will also carry out measures to ensure the safe use of GMOs and prevent their dispersal in the environment and damage to ecosystems. Lithuania is a signatory to the Nagoya Protocol on ABS and is taking steps towards its ratification and implementation, including the preparation of relevant legislation, with consideration also given to the EU Regulation adopted in on compliance measures for users from the Nagoya Protocol. The measures contained in the Action Plan will contribute to the implementation of various strategic plans, such as the National Progress Programme , the National Sustainable Development Strategy and the National Strategy for Climate Change Management Policy The three pillars of sustainable development social, environmental, environmental were taken into account during the development of the NBSAP, whose outputs are expected to contribute significantly to the Kiribati Integrated Environment Policy.

Nine priority areas will be focused on until The Action Plan identifies biodiversity threats and presents associated national targets mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets , national actions, indicators, outputs, responsible agencies and costs.

Local communities will be heavily involved in implementation. Church groups, youth and women will also support implementation activities.

Kiribati is currently exploring ways and means to establish an Environment Fund. In , Kiribati became the world leader in marine conservation after declaring the Phoenix Islands sq km a marine protected area PIPA. Also included among its achievements over the last decade are the production of the Key Biodiversity Area Report, the directory of RAMSAR potential sites, community-based management plans fisheries and mangrove management plans , and environment educational materials.

The first National Biodiversity Strategy was prepared in however an associated Action Plan was not prepared. The new document particularly seeks to put in place systems, technologies and legislative instruments to mainstream biodiversity into the national development agenda. Four strategic objectives components aim to: The four strategic objectives and respective priority national strategies are to be achieved over 25 years, within a three-phase programme , , A short-term programme comprising 20 separate action plans to be implemented between now and contains activities that fit into the ongoing national development agenda.

Funding for activities is provided from the national annual budget and development partners the total cost of implementing the short-term programme is GHS MESTI will maintain a strong leadership role and report regularly on the status of biodiversity and, in most cases, lead in the coordination of sectoral activities. The NBSAP has been designed to be implemented by ministries, departments and agencies outside of MESTI; emphasis is placed on concerted action at all levels of governance, including the traditional authorities, the private sector, civil society organizations and the Government of Ghana as a whole.

Local institutions will be highly instrumental in implementing actions and should also benefit from enhanced capacity and capability as a result of NBSAP implementation. In order to ensure effective monitoring and reporting on the NBSAP, an overall results framework has been developed which provides clear guidance on indicators, which can be used to monitor implementation and review the action plan.

By June , Ghana intends to have developed and implemented a communication and public awareness strategy on biodiversity conservation. The National Decentralized System for Participatory Planning constitutes a set of processes, entities and instruments that enables the interaction of various social and institutional actors to organize and coordinate development planning at all levels of government.

Ecuador's Strategy contains four objectives: National biodiversity targets are set and distributed under the four strategic objectives, and linked to nineteen results to be achieved by as well as to relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets. An action plan provides a description of actions and entities responsible for implementation during this period. Specific studies were carried out regarding the integration of aspects on gender, interculturality and climate change during the preparation of the Strategy.

The National Institute for Biodiversity was established by decree in It represents the national response to implementing the commitments made by Parties in Nagoya. The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources is responsible for coordinating implementation of the Strategy and must advise the President on progress at least once a year. Ten priority objectives aim to: For each priority objective, activities are elaborated and linked to outcomes, implementing organizations and implementation periods specific targets have been set under certain priority objectives.

Among other activities to be carried out to , Azerbaijan endeavours to: Funding for proposed activities will be met by funds allocated in the central state budget and from the State fund for environmental protection, micro-credit schemes, and grants from international donors and financial institutions. It is a five-year plan set within a fifteen-year framework, aligned with the Horizon national development framework and its third-phase strategy entitled the Growth and Sustainable Development Strategy GSDS endorsed in The Action Plan is notably structured for mainstreaming and multi-sectoral implementation across government, the private sector and civil society.

Five strategic goals address the following themes: Twenty measurable national targets are distributed among these strategic goals, each linked to achieving both relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals. The national targets are also linked to prioritized strategic actions broken down into activities associated to relevant indicators, lead implementing agencies and supporting agencies.

In addition, synergies have been identified for mainstreaming implementation, through the identification of national legislations, policies and plans that contain similar objectives e. Timeframes per target are also suggested and, in some instances, extend beyond , however remain within the timeframe of the Horizon framework. An Implementation Plan focused on capacity development, communication and outreach, and resource mobilization has been formulated.

Capacity gaps at individual, institutional and systemic levels identified during the NBSAP revision process capacity gaps were also identified under the GSDS are addressed in this Plan. Recommendations for addressing gaps and limitations in biodiversity policies and legislation that can potentially affect NBSAP implementation have also been assembled. The country plans to develop a Communication and Outreach Strategy Framework which will be supported by the re-establishment of the national Clearing House Mechanism CHM , among other activities.

The National Protected Areas System is the primary mechanism used by Belize for biodiversity conservation and is supported through a variety of funding mechanisms, such as grants from the Protected Areas Conservation Trust PACT , Debt-for-Nature Agreement, and revenue generated directly by the protected areas themselves.

NBSAP II is based on results obtained from studies carried out in five thematic areas, subsequently adopted as strategic areas axes for intervention in the final version of the document.

These strategic areas comprise: Sub-objectives have also been defined which correspond more particularly to achieving the three CBD objectives on conservation, sustainable use, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, and are distributed under each strategic area, as appropriate. For each of the latter, compliance indicators, verification sources and action plans comprised of separate projects are also presented.

Each project is associated to responsible bodies, partners national, international and financial , objectives, activities, estimated costs, among other elements. It should be noted that activities are of a preliminary nature and will be continued beyond , as necessary. Also, under the Decentralization Policy, pursued by the central Government, the District Councils are officially responsible for environmental matters. Various restoration projects concerning tree species of high commercial value have been conducted, and work in this area is ongoing.

Work has also been carried out regarding the valuation of traditional medicines. CEPA activities are underway to raise awareness within society at large of the values of agricultural ecosystems and the traditional uses of and customs linked to biodiversity. Sao Tome and Principe also intends to develop a national legal framework on biosafety and promote scientific research within the scope of biotechnology.

The vision and guiding principles developed in have been retained in the updated version. The current NBSAP also pays special attention to themes not addressed in the earlier NBSAP, namely gender, as a cross-cutting issue, and biodiversity integration in climate change and disaster risk reduction plans.

Jamaica also seeks to enhance biodiversity mainstreaming in awareness-raising activities, particularly targeting youth development programmes and policies, and in land use planning. While an outline for a resource mobilization strategy has been elaborated, there exist difficulties in mobilizing financial resources and in the application of natural resource valuation NRV methods.

Actions focus on biodiversity conservation across all sectors. Local governments parish councils are designated among the entities responsible for implementing activities related to land use planning. The NBSAP also comprises a plan for monitoring and evaluating the achievement of the national targets. The Agency will be responsible for following up with various ministries and agencies regarding the production of data to inform the targets and indicators.

In this implementation period, among numerous other activities, Jamaica endeavors to: It contains five strategic objectives, mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets, focused on: An implementation timeframe has been set, however Andorra anticipates revising the strategic objectives in in accordance with biodiversity trends that exist at that time.

Initiatives are promoted in three sectors, in particular: Included among the activities to be undertaken are: NBSAP2 contains 24 national targets and 99 activities.

Examples of activities to be implemented under the four strategic goals include: To implement the 17 SDGs, 16 sub-committees have been established under the guidance of the NCSD, each responsible for different goals and chaired and organized by a ministry or organization other than the Department of the Environment. These sub-committees, in addition to addressing technical, legal and political aspects of the SDGs and related Conventions, should prepare national reports for the Conventions, and propose, approve and monitor implementation of relevant national and regional environmental projects.

In addition, national steering committees have been put in place to coordinate, monitor and evaluate the implementation of such projects. In this context, the document represents the cornerstone strategic framework for achieving sustainable income generation and employment for inclusive green growth, for the benefit of present and future generations, through actions focused on conservation, sustainable use, restoration and biodiversity valuation.

An NBSAP summary has been prepared specifically for decision-makers to enhance their perception of biodiversity, and contains proposals to accomplish this through strengthening work related to the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity, among other actions.

Information collected on the status and trends of Algerian ecosystems marine and coastal, forest and mountain, steppe, Saharan, oasis, wetland and from three specific studies on biodiversity and climate change, ecosystem goods and services and urban biodiversity, contributed to the elaboration of the NBSAP.

Its four strategic objectives focus on: Strategic indicators have been defined for each strategic objective, as well as for each of the 21 national targets. There are a total of actions, each assigned expected results, responsible entities and operational indicators. Implementation costs are estimated at more than USD million for the initial period. Priority actions to be implemented by the end of include: To date, ten partner sectors industry and mines, education, fisheries, public works, tourism, crafts, transportation, communication, culture, energy have prepared biodiversity action plans however only two sectors energy and fisheries have approved their plans.

Having identified the lack of biodiversity integration in sectoral policies as a weakness in the first NBSAP , the new NBSAP conversely advocates the sharing of responsibilities with sectors through biodiversity integration in sectoral biodiversity action plans and well as in local policies as fundamental to NBSAP implementation. Flagship measures to be undertaken to include: National Centre for Biological Resources Development, national parks ; exploration of innovative financing mechanisms e.

Payment for Ecosystem Services; tariffs on national park entry; opportunities provided by effectively implementing the Nagoya Protocol on ABS to which Algeria is currently a signatory ; and ecotourism development.

Its vision, with a horizon, is to improve the quality of life for Paraguayans through a paradigm shift aimed at strengthening the application of the sustainable development model. This is to be achieved by promoting effective and efficient implementation of programmes related to conservation, ecological restoration and the sustainable use of biodiversity, with consideration given to CBD principles with emphasis placed on the rights of indigenous peoples concerning traditional knowledge , institutional strengthening and national and international legal frameworks.

Coordinated actions will be undertaken, involving all sectors and diverse actors, who benefit directly or indirectly from biodiversity and ecosystem services including government, civil society, indigenous peoples, private sector and academia , and consider gender and respect for traditional knowledge. Eleven general strategic objectives and sub-objectives focus on: Each general strategic objective is supported by specific objectives, proposed actions, expected results, indicators, implementing entities and cost estimates.

The Implementation Plan draws particular attention to the importance of identifying synergies, establishing cross-sectoral and systematic approaches e. Ten priority strategic axes focus on: A total of 14 national targets are distributed among these priority strategic axes. Each target is assigned indicators, actions and responsible executing entities. The capacity-building needs self-assessment was instrumental in highlighting capacity-building needs that remain relevant today for the preparation and revision of policy documents and strengthening legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks.

Since April , activities have been carried out to develop technical, administrative and managerial competencies of personnel located at the central structure of the environment and sustainable development administration.

It is also proposed that, by , a national programme on information, education and communication be developed and implemented to raise public awareness of the values of biodiversity.

DR Congo plans on establishing a network of national biodiversity-related databases and to make access available to this network on the national CHM at http: Both documents were developed with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its Aichi Targets taken into account.

As such, the Strategy emphasizes the importance of considering environmental consequences in management decisions, and in the formulation of policies or programmes related to state, sectoral, regional and local development, and the need for establishing inter-sectoral partnerships and engaging broadly with stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector. The document also highlights strategic directions focused on: Other principles relate to: The Action Plan contains 7 goals targeting the following issues: For each goal, measures, responsible executors, timeframes, potential funding sources and cost estimates are presented.

Each measure is moreover mapped to achieving relevant Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Indicators have also been developed for each goal, and efforts are currently being carried out to improve the state system for environmental monitoring and information support to enable better managerial decision-making. By , Ukraine anticipated having completed the transfer of EU environmental protection standards and the drafting of respective laws and regulations, and to be in a position to begin implementing the latter in the period.

The country also intends to focus on introducing economic mechanisms to stimulate structural transformations in support of sustainable development during this period. The first National Biodiversity Strategy was adopted in an associated Action Plan was not prepared. Strategic actions for valuation, preservation and restoration Among the 14 guiding principles that underpin the NBSAP is the requirement that all stakeholders mainstream biodiversity considerations in public policies and decision-making processes.

The NBSAP thus presents an important opportunity and framework to mainstream biodiversity criteria in such policies, plans and programs, within and across sectors, and at all levels of government, to ensure the continued provision of ecosystem services necessary for the well-being of the Mexican people.

The gender perspective is promoted as a cross-cutting issue in implementation 36 more women than men participated in the NBSAP planning process. Notably, Mexico has also established a legal and institutional framework which covers the issues of biodiversity, climate change and the environment, and the relationship with gender.

These activities are contributing to improving human and institutional local capacities. At present, more than twenty States are involved in this initiative. The NBSAP is based on the following 6 strategic axes each of which is associated to an overarching strategic objective to be achieved by These axes are complemented by 24 lines of action, actions and further specifications and recommendations , implementation timeframes and , responsible implementation entities i.

The establishment of an inter-sectoral framework to coordinate activities within the Federal Public Administration on monitoring and evaluation of implementation has been proposed.

A positive trend exists regarding national public expenditure and international funding for biodiversity. Key actions required to strengthen capacity include, among others, those related to: Mexico was the first megadiverse country to ratify the Nagoya Protocol on ABS in , and intends to have adopted the legislation necessary to implement the Protocol by Since becoming an EU member in , various strategic reference documents have been developed and implemented in response to national or EU policy, integrating biodiversity to a greater or lesser extent, and ensuring the financing of related projects.

Moreover, ten strategic objectives address: Operational objectives and a suite of actions are also presented. Responsible institutions, implementation periods, estimated budgets, financing sources, priorities, and performance indicators have been designated for each action.

Activities will be carried out with administrators of natural protected areas, managers of natural resources, and with representatives of local communities, the scientific and business communities and civil society. Monitoring will be conducted by the inter-ministerial committee responsible for coordinating the integration of environmental protection into sectoral policies and strategies at the national level.

The costs for implementing the Action Plan have been estimated at 6. The development of the current National Programme was largely based on the Economic and Social Policy Guidelines approved by the 6th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba and natural resource policies adopted in consequence , CBD national reports, the National Economic Plan, experiences and results gained from implementing the National Environmental Strategy for and and other specific strategic frameworks e.

Achievement of the national targets is also mapped to the Economic and Social Policy Guidelines approved by the 6th Congress. Several priority areas broadly-defined as follows are addressed: Priority is also being given to matters related to the mobilization of resources to increase material and financial capacities; harmonization and integration of biodiversity in national development policies and strategies and in decision-making processes at all levels; development of a national legal system, including aspects related to international commitments, with importance attached to the themes of access to genetic resources, biological collections, among others; biodiversity mainstreaming in sectors; and the further development of indicators and monitoring processes.

To facilitate integration of efforts undertaken by relevant entities and achieve the most effective outcomes, the National Programme emphasizes that these aims be realized through strengthening coordination among existing structures and identifying synergies, rather than through the establishment of new mechanisms. The linkages between the Sustainable Development Goals i. Government ministries and departments, and associated organizations, responsible for implementing each activity are identified; these entities will be supported by various biodiversity committees to be constituted under the Bangladesh Biological Diversity Act which currently awaits Parliamentary approval.

The National Committee on Biodiversity will oversee implementation progress periodically with strong engagement of all the stakeholders. While the total cost of implementation is estimated at A part of updating the NBSAP consisted of conducting an economic valuation assessment using secondary data on the 50 services provided by three ecosystems hill forest, wetland and mangrove.

It was concluded that the contribution of these ecosystems to the GDP is equivalent to 9. Furthermore, by , Bangladesh expects to have accomplished an assessment of the valuation of goods and services of all its major ecosystems and incorporated these values into the national accounting system this undertaking is also proposed in the 7th Five Year Plan.

The NBSAP ensures the participation of women in implementation activities and that the benefits derived from biodiversity are shared equitably with them. Over the last decades, the establishment of community-based management systems for forests and wetlands resources has resulted in successful conservation outcomes while also having a direct positive contribution to poverty alleviation. The private sector is encouraged to contribute to biodiversity conservation by investing in biodiversity-related opportunities e.

While addressing EIA requirements, the National Industrial Policy does not directly mention elements related to the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services a recommendation has been put forward to incorporate these provisions in this policy.

Read document National Targets Country profile Tajikistan A summary will be provided here upon receipt of the English version. This document constitutes the national policy instrument on biodiversity as well as a continuation of the initial NBSAP endorsed in It is also one of the few national policies that has adopted the principles enshrined in the Constitution , among which include the principle to recognize customary rules and norms as an integral part of the modern law system.

As such, the authority of customary leaders is implicit and the legitimacy of community decisions taken on natural resource management ensured. Moreover, the Constitution provides the guiding principles for interpreting all other Acts, including the Environment Act The NBSAP is complementary to other policies, particularly the National Development Strategy , and can be viewed as the sum of all strategies developed by environment-related organizations.

The National Development Strategy will serve as the resource mobilization plan for the NBSAP, and as an instrument for mainstreaming issues on gender and poverty eradication and addressing challenges associated with environmental development. Fourteen priority areas are identified in the current NBSAP each of which supported by a policy statement: Block's maps, showing the movements of some tuna for more than four years, were sufficiently concrete that they could force an end to the prolonged stalemate.

The bottom of Cape Cod Bay is saturated with sound that is part of an ever louder man-made din that's filling the world's oceans, and some say harming marine life.

Whale beachings have been linked to sonar blasts, but a broader concern is rising levels of background noise generated by commercial shipping. Marine life uses sound for navigation and communication and scientists believe the spreading "acoustic smog" is affecting feeding, breeding and other crucial activities. Evidence is scant of the real effects of sound and even with new technology, ocean animals are hard to track.

No system exists to monitor ocean sounds worldwide, and the data is often taken from a small number of sites that measure only certain frequencies.

Underwater sound also seems to affect different animals in completely different ways. An acoustics researcher at the NOAA said better research is urgently needed. Sound carries farther and faster in water than air and through the ages, marine animals have learned to take advantage of the ocean's natural sound stages. Whales talk about basic things like where the best food or breeding is. They even seem to to produce the most intricate songs.

Some animals use the ocean's "sound channels" to communicate over thousands of miles. Animals have learned that, at a certain depth, the sound bounds ahead with little resistance.

Huge increases in commercial shipping have coincided with increased ocean noise. Between and , the world shipping fleet has increased from 85 million tons to million tons and the background noise has increased roughly 15 decibels. There's evidence marine mammals are changing their sound patterns, which could show their normal communication has been disrupted. Some advocate installing quieter propellers in new ships, which would reduce noise and also increase the efficiency by which ships move through water.

Retrofitting current ships would be expensive, and the benefit is uncertain. Sound is perceived by ocean animals so differently that it's almost like a different sense, making it hard to apply what we know about the effects of certain decibel levels to ocean life.

Thirty-four species of marine mammals inhabit the Gulf of California, one of the world's most important nursery and feeding areas for porpoises, dolphins and whales. For millions of years, the sediments and freshwater of the Colorado River fed into the Gulf of California.

During the 20th century, however, heavy water diversion depleted the river, cutting it off almost entirely from the sea. No more than vaquita marinas survive, the last remaining habitat of this small porpoise.

Eight were reported dead in , but estimates put the total number of annual deaths at roughly The Gulf provides half of the Mexixo's fish supply including sharks, northern milkfish, Spanish mackerel, corvine and others. Each year the humpback whale, California gray whale, manta ray and leatherback turtle visit the Gulf, where abundant nutrients can be found year-round. Rich food sources, powerful tides and shallow waters make the Upper Gulf one of the most robust marine ecosystems in the world.

Bottom trawling consists of dragging a heavy net across the bottom of the ocean, to snag fish that hover close to the seabed. The Deep Sea Conservation Coalition is spearheading the call for a moratorium on the practice and says the technique is doing harm to fragile ecosystems by gouging out corals. It has been likened to fishing with a bulldozer. A single net can snare a tonne and a half of cold-water corals that grow very slowly, every hour. Some of them off Europe are 8, years old and may take hundreds or thousands of years to recover - if at all.

The fleets are after valuable fish species that hug the underwater mountains. Scientists fear bottom-trawling will destroy many of the reefs before researchers can study them. Much of the life on seamounts has yet to be catalogued. Discussions are underway at the UN on fisheries and ocean managemen that will result in resolutions next month.

The Coalition is urging the UN to declare a global moratorium until the international community decides how to manage deep-sea fisheries.

The construction of liquid natural gas terminals could damage commercial fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. Concerns forced the Coast Guard to suspend the permit for at least two terminals off the Louisiana coast. The problem occurs when the liquid natural gas LNG , is heated to gaseous form with Gulf water containing fish and crustacean eggs and larvae. LNG is cooled to minus degrees to turn it into a liquid to be shipped in tankers from wells around the world. The terminals pump seawater and LNG through a piece of equipment where warm Gulf water heats the liquid, which vaporizes into a gas.

The water would be cooled in the process, and if the organisms are not killed by the temperature drop, they won't survive the pump machinery or chemicals used to keep the pipes clean. This system would dump the water, 20 degrees to 30 degrees cooler, back into the Gulf, where it could continue to stun and kill sea life. Most of the companies choosing this system have said using a closed-loop system consumes too much LNG as a heat source and undercut the financial viability of the projects and increase air pollution.

Sierra Club officials say approval could threaten the fishing industry. The risk of wiping out species of important fish in the Gulf, is too great to allow further approvals. In several cases, applicants failed to identify the economic impact of lost fisheries. Flow-through systems should be avoided in favor of closed-loop systems.

The locations of the terminals are a problem as most are offshore of the estuaries where fish live and reproduce. With 15 LNG terminals proposed for the Gulf, officials have become concerned about the potential effects as they don't know enough about how the terminals will affect the environment. Federal scientists warn that liquid natural gas terminals could damage commercial fishing in the Gulf of Mexico and force the Coast Guard to suspend permits for two terminals off the Louisiana coast.

When the liquid natural gas is heated back into a gas the process sucks in Gulf water containing potentially millions of fish and crustacean eggs and larvae. The terminals would pump the seawater and natural gas through a piece of equipment where the warm Gulf water would vaporize the liquid into a gas and the water would be rapidly cooled.

If the organisms are not killed by the temperature drop, they won't survive the pump machinery or the chemicals used to clean the inside of the pipes. The system would then dump the water, 20 degrees to 30 degrees cooler, back into the Gulf, where it could continue to harm sea life.

The process also would kill organisms that are food for fish. Using a less-damaging closed-loop system consumes too much of the natural gas as a heat source and might undercut the financial viability of the projects and increase air pollution. It is the money these terminals generate that is attractive to officials in the Gulf Coast states.

Sierra Club officials say approval could threaten the fishing industry and NOAA officials say the risk of wiping out entire species of commercially important fish is too great to allow further approval and applicants failed to identify the economic impact of lost fisheries.

Concerns must be weighed in light of an lack of basic information about the population of various fish and crustacean species and a limited understanding of how the viability of eggs or larvae could affect those species. The locations of the terminals are a problem as most are offshore of the estuaries where many fish live and reproduce. With as many as 15 LNG terminals now proposed for the Gulf, NOAA Fisheries and state officials have become concerned about the potential effects and officials don't know how the terminals will affect the environment.

Coast Guard officials notified Shell that the Gulf Landing permitting process had been suspended until company officials adequately addressed the NOAA Fisheries concerns and suspended the permit application process until the company could justify its conclusion that "egg and larvae impacts are negligible" compared with the amount of sea life in the area.

Canada's port cities spew billions of litres of untreated sewage into open waters. John's discharge human waste and toxic chemicals with little or no treatment.

Canada is working to develop a treatment program by , regulated by Environment Canada. Victoria discharged 2, tonnes of oil and grease, nine tonnes of copper and 2. Lead, silver, mercury and other chemicals were also found.

Canada is failing to meet the standards of the US and Europe. Lawrence annually while Dawson City continues to discharge one billion litres and Victoria dumps 34 billion litres of sewage into the ocean each year. These chemicals play havoc with sea birds, mammals and marine life and ultimately are consumed by humans through the fish we eat. A Victoria sewage spokesman said the report neglects the steps Victoria has taken to prevent harmful chemicals from entering the sewers and plans to show its strategy has cut the amount in the system.

The environmental groups said Canadians are entitled to efficient sewage treatment, national standards and adequate funding.

The world's annual capture fisheries and aquaculture production has plateaued at million tonnes. If China's aquaculture production is excluded, the world fisheries production including aquaculture, has declined steadily.

Demand for seafood continues to outstrip even world population growth and a global shortfall of up to 80 million tonnes per annum is forecast within the next 30 years. Declines in capture fisheries reflect illegal and unregulated fishing, impacts on fish habitats, coastal development, regulation of rivers, urban and agriculture runoff and global warming.

A major contributor is exploitation of uncertainty over the nature of change and assessment of causes. Subsidies in developed countries, coupled with trade barriers against countries using cheaper labour costs are used to disadvantage poorer countries. International trade may alleviate poverty for some countries but makes fish as food increasingly unattainable in poor areas. Allocation of resources is not a panacea for fisheries management problems as it is not preceded by an understanding of the measures necessary to ensure conservation.

Aquaculture is anticipated to play an increased role in future demand for seafood but if China's figures are excluded, increases in aquaculture production in the last 10 years have not equalled declines in capture fisheries. To meet projected demands for an extra 80 million tonnes would require 4 countries to copy China's 20 million tonne increase in production. Aquaculture in consumes, as feed, twice the weight of fish it produces.

The growth in aquaculture production has occurred in developing countries, suggesting benefits to the poor. However, detailed analyses show concerns with destruction of coastal fish habitats in construction of aquaculture enterprises, increased propagation of fish diseases, negative impacts from translocation of species and the use, as feed, of fish traditionally available for human consumption. In several assessments the loss of this fish as food for poor communities is recognised.

Furthermore, increased targeting of smaller fish driven by the demand for aquaculture feed, is damaging to ecosystems, and existing commercial fisheries. There are well managed fisheries that produce high yields sustainably and aquaculture ventures that provide incomes and food security for the poor, based on acknowledgement of the impact of external influences, cutting-edge research, and management responses. Science and technological development can meet most challenges that are given priority and resources.

Toxins in sperm whale blubber indicate that chemicals have dispersed thoughout the ocean. The goals of this study are whale conservation and whale health to gauge the overall well-being of the ocean.

Biopsies of about 30 of 1, blubber samples gathered throughout the world showed that all may contain levels of man-made toxins.

The International Whaling Commission is a coalition of nations that abide by conservation guidelines. A second round of tests will determine the amount of toxins in the blubber.

An adult female whale has a toxic load which is going to be passed to her young and could build up over generations. The most common chemical in sperm whale blubber is DDT, banned in North America in but still manufactured for use in other countries. The findings are compelling, but the research must be validated.

Sperm whales live fairly far from shore and it's surprising to find these chemicals in deep-water animals. Their long life spans and fat stores are indicators of the health of ocean life. They feed on giant squid, which feed on pelagic fish and so the chemicals go up the food chain and they are the final sink for pollutants. In addition to sampling whale blubber, the study is using sonar to estimate the total whale population in the world and plot migration patterns.

EU ministers agreed to fishing quotas with a compromise to keep fishermen afloat while preserving fish stocks. The 15 nations agreed on catch quotas and shelved plans for cuts to quotas for cod in waters off Denmark and western Scotland.

The fish is at risk of extinction in EU waters with stocks at the lowest. There was agreement on long-term recovery plans for hake, another endangered species. Britain declared this a good deal for UK fishermen, with increases in permitted catches next year for haddock and prawns, and an increase to 15 in the number of days per month trawlers can put to sea.

Fleets are pledged to avoid taking cod from certain fishing grounds to allow stocks to recover. The EU said it kept the industry alive, while the recovery plans for cod and hake had been set.

The livelihoods of , people are at stake over quotas but stocks of cod have shrunk in the North Sea to about one-tenth of the level in Urgent measures were needed to protect the EU from what happened in the waters off eastern Canada in the s, where overfishing resulted in the disappearance of cod and still have not recovered. An alliance of conservation groups is arguing that beluga stocks are declining and the quota for beluga caviar exports should be zero.

Fish and Wildlife Service is considering a request to list beluga sturgeon as an endangered species. As a result of monitoring and managing fish stocks and poaching, the situation is starting to turn around.

The caviar trade by Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan was halted in Iran joined the effort. Beluga stocks are recovering and the catch and export quotas were set below earlier levels. The Bush administration is rewriting federal rules to limit states' influence on what happens off their coasts. A letter signed by Rep. Lois Capps D-Santa Barbara and 90 other members of Congress calls the revision a "pernicious assault on states' rights.

Gray Davis' administration said the changes would weaken authority over offshore drilling while the Bush administration asserts that federal agencies are the experts on environmental impacts to a state's coastline. They would give greater weight to federal agencies by eliminating the deference given to state agencies. The administration claimed that there is nothing that would limit states' rights.

The Commerce Department completed a "comprehensive revision" of those rules in the days of Clinton's presidency. Now it is revising them again. Oil companies support the new rules and would like the process to be predictable and clearly defined.

Opponents claim that the Bush administration wants to get rid of delays by governors slowing or stopping federal development and see the rule changes as an end-run around December's ruling which blocked oil drilling until the California Coastal Commission reviews them for environmental hazards. Those leases are to expire after 5years, the Bush administration is seeking to extend them, opposed by state officials.

The flow of sediments and nutrients into the reef has increased four-fold since European settlement. In the past few years unusually hot sea water has caused two coral bleaching events, the worst ever. Queensland organisms such as soft corals, sponges and starfish may be valuable for anti-tumour compounds that may prove successful against human cancers. The government has proposed a six-fold increase in protected areas within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

At an international conference organized by Conservational International, ocean activists recommended limiting overfishing and pollution in sensitive breeding grounds which lie in the open sea but acknowledges it won't be easy to regulate international waters. Coastal development, pollution, and climate change, are devastating marine life. Marine biologists claim that fishermen could catch more than they do today while causing less damage.

The problem dates to , when the Stratton Commission report led to the creation of the National Marine Fisheries Service. But this reflected the emphasis on exploitation and sales.

Now the oceans need a respite of several years of reduced catches and there are success stories where depleted fisheries are being restored.

Fishermen working off Canada's Atlantic provinces did not reduce their catches as cod populations collapsed in the s and this year the region had to be closed to fishing. Bottom-scraping trawl nets have scarred sensitive environments at the seabed. There is a demand for policies to reduce the tons of marine life and sea birds that are unintentionally hooked or entangled every year.

Shrimp trawls in the Gulf of Mexico capture an estimated 20 million juvenile red snapper every year. Patagonian long-line fishing killed more than , seabirds in 3 years. Every year, 20, acres of coastal spawning grounds are lost because of coastal development. Those that remain are polluted with runoff and toxins, rendering them less productive.

Ocean experts say the nation needs an independent agency devoted to ocean health, free of the political missions and biases. Scientists and fishermen call for a network of protected marine reserves in which underwater communities could thrive and "reseed". Consumers can help by buying only fish that are relatively abundant. Those left are only one half to one fifth the size than those caught before industrialized fishing began in The biological destruction is unprecedented in its scope and rapidity and blasts the idea that the oceans have uncaught fish waiting to be discovered.

Other ocean creatures are faring no better. The group that includes dolphins and porpoises, are also in critical danger. Those fish most prized as human foodstuff: Technology such as sonar and satellite methods of finding the ocean's warm fronts where fish once congregated have generated the problem. The populations of big fish are so depleted that people spend more time and energy to catch fewer fish.

Other species may recover if levels of fishing are cut immediately. More people mean more fertilizer, sewage and animal waste flowing into Puget Sound, providing rich nutrients for algae.

Clams, mussels, oysters, geoducks and pink scallops filter algae from seawater, producing toxins. When people eat infected shellfish, the neurotoxin can cause breathing difficulties, nausea, paralysis and death.

The relationship between algae blooms and human activities remains unclear. Algae require nitrogen and other nutrients, but it is not understood what are the nutrients that fuels the blooms. Most of the closed shellfish beds are off limits because of high levels of fecal coliform or dangerous pollutants, such as mercury. If you go south you've got more pollution, and if you go north you've got more paralytic shellfish poison. Among environmentalists, a baseline is a reference point for measuring the health of ecosystems.

The baseline for any given habitat would be what was there before humans had much impact and if we know the baseline we can work to restore it. If the baseline shifted before we chart it, then we end up accepting a degraded state as normal. Environmental groups are trying to decide what we want nature to look like in the future. Data from around the world make the case that overfishing and humans have had an effect on the oceans so that it is difficult to imagine how full of life they used to be.

The baselines have shifted for ocean ecosystems and there is disagreement on the future. Some biologists argue that, as the desirable species are stripped out, we will be left with the hardiest, most undesirable species, jellyfish and bacteria. The coral reefs of Jamaica have been degraded into mounds of dead corals covered by algae.

Upcoming reports conclude that the oceans are in severe decline. The solutions are known and we must work to prevent their further decline. Our environment has suffered and our lives have suffered in other ways as well. Seven out of 10 commercial fish species are fully or overexploited. The number of poisonous algal species identified by scientists has nearly tripled since , increasing fish kills, beach closures, and economic losses. People obtain an average of 16 percent of their animal protein from fish.

About 2 billion people-one third of humanity-live within kilometers of a coastline. In just the past few decades, pollution, overfishing, dense coastal development, and other forces have destroyed a tenth of the Earth's coral reefs and seriously degraded almost a third. At this rate, scientists warn, nearly three-quarters could lie in ruins. The "dead zone" off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the Gulf of Mexico this summer could be one of the largest on record.

In the dead zone seasonal oxygen levels drop too low to support most life in bottom and near-bottom waters. Dead zones are caused by nutrient runoff, principally from agricultural activity, which stimulates an overgrowth of algae that sinks, decomposes, and consumes most of the life-giving oxygen supply in the water. Scientists are predicting the area could measure between 7, and 8, square miles, or an area roughly the size of New Jersey.

This hypoxic, or low-to-no oxygen area, is of particular concern because it threatens valuable commercial and recreational Gulf fisheries by destroying critical habitat. Yukon River smokehouses should be filled this summer with oil-rich strips of king salmon.

But they're mostly empty. One Alaska river after another has been closed to king fishing because significant numbers of fish failed to return to spawn. Federal and state fisheries biologists are looking into the mystery. King salmon spend years in the Bering Sea before returning as adults to rivers where they were born to spawn and die. Biologists speculate that the mostly likely cause was a shift in Pacific Ocean currents, but food availability, changing river conditions and predator-prey relationships could be affecting the fish.

People living along the Yukon River think they know what is to blame, pollock fishery, the nation's largest that removes about 1 million metric tons of pollock each year from the eastern Bering Sea.

King salmon get caught in the huge pollock trawl nets, and the dead kings are counted and most are thrown back into the ocean. Some are donated to the needy. Since , the number of king salmon caught has skyrocketed, reaching over , in A substantial portion of those fish were bound for western Alaska rivers. If those fish had lived, an estimated 78, adult fish would have returned to rivers from the Pacific Northwest to Western Alaska.

In , bycatch rules were adopted allowing the pollock fleet to move from areas where lots of kings were being inadvertently caught, thereby avoiding large-scale fishing closures. Then, happaned, and it was back to the drawing board. Last April, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, the organization that manages ocean fish, passed a hard cap on the pollock fishery. Beginning in , the portion of the fleet that participates in the program is allowed 60, kings a year.

If the cap is reached, the fishery shuts down. The loss of the kings is devastating village economies. There's no money to buy anything. It is crippling the economy in all of the rivers where they depend on commercial fishing for income. An Alaska Department of Fish and Game biologist pointed to changing ocean currents, plankton blooms and even the carnivorous nature of salmon. River conditions could be changing, too, he said. A lot isn't known about what happens to king salmon in the ocean.

In a good year, Kwik'pak Fisheries L. This summer, only about 30 people have been hired. The lower Yukon villages are economically devastated. I's hard to see the villages in such economic hardship but the Yukon should be managed conservatively until the problem of the disappearing kings is better understood. For 50 years, it was an extremely stable fishery. Barack Obama has been careful at every turn not to offend the big oil and coal companies. Just recently he announced that he was suspending a longstanding moratorium on offshore drilling, saying that "we are going to need vital energy sources to maintain our economic growth and our security.

If the oil, instead of polluting the Gulf, had made its way up through the drilling pipe, onto the platform, off the gulf into some refinery and thence into the gas tank of a car, or if that West Virginia mine hadn't collapsed on the miners and instead the coal had proceeded smoothly down some rail line to some coal-fired plant, the result would be more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. A gallon of gas, which weighs a little more than seven pounds, results in about 22 pounds of CO2. The average American car driven the average American distance releases its own weight in CO2 annually.

This CO2 traps heat near the atmosphere that would otherwise radiate back out to space. Coral reef researchers think that the entire ecosystem may be extinct by mid-century.

Forget the slick in the gulf; think of the invisible acid slick now covering all seven seas. Before the century is out, if we don't get off fossil fuel, then the climatologists have made the prognosis clear: This is the ultimate teachable moment, the place where we can insist that our leaders start to take serious action-not just, or even mainly, to make sure that we don't have oil well blowouts in the future, but to make sure that we get off dirty energy.

The Obama administration has been more involved than its predecessors 5, hybrid cars for the federal fleet! Tanks running on biofuels!

They couldn't do much more because Obama wouldn't push harder because he didn't see political gain involved-he already has the environmental vote. There is no movement giving him the push to take the issue to the next level. We push by becoming politically engaged. On the tenth of October, We need to spread the word that parts per million CO2 is the most we can safely have in the atmosphere.

At the Copenhagen climate summit, nations signed on to that ppm concentration target. But they the poor nations. The rich and addicted weren't yet ready to face the truth. On October 10, people around the world will be putting up solar panels and harvesting community gardens and laying out bike paths because they want to send a serious, pointed message to our leaders: If we can get to work, you can get to work.

Last year in Copenhagen, Desmond Tutu preached a service at the city's great cathedral. When he was done, the cathedral bell range times, and then 3, churches across Europe did the same thing. It sent a message: Oil is the vehicle that allowed humankind's population to grow beyond its capacity. Now, with agriculture facing climate change and trying to succeed on less and less oil, humankind has a tremendous adjustment to make - so big that many will not make it.

Overfishing of whales in the North Pacific Ocean 50 years ago led to the decimation of Alaska's kelp forests today. The killing of great whales from to forced killer whales to seek alternative food. Beginning with harbor seals, then fur seals, sea lions, and finally sea otters, the killer whales targeted progressively smaller populations of coastal marine mammals. When the sea otter population was pushed down it allowed an explosion of sea urchins which led to decimation of the Alaskan kelp forests due to the sea urchins' over-grazing.

Sea otter populations are on the rise, but this has been slowed by disease. Some scientists think sea otter diseases may have links to pollution, others note that zoonotic diseases are to blame for many sea otter deaths in Europe and U. Derek Hatfield competes in a solo round-the-world ocean race, this year finishing in third place.

Having undertaken long sea voyages since the early s, he has noticed disturbing changes in the ocean wildlife in the last few years. Last year I did a transatlantic race and I didn't see one whale in the whole 15 days of racing across the North Atlantic. The oceans are dying and they're dying very quickly. Hatfield always used to stop what he was doing when dolphins showed up to race beside the bow of the boat or follow behind. But dolphins have stopped showing.

Now it's a rare sight. Around the world, people who live, work and play on the water are reporting significant changes in marine ecosystems, including fewer fish and shorebirds, growing blooms of algae to shrinking amounts of seaweed, the result of of climate change, pollution and overfishing. A recent report presented to the United Nations last week warned of looming mass extinctions. Alex Rogers of Oxford University, scientific director of the International Program on the State of the Ocean, said the state of the oceans is declining far more rapidly than even the most pessimistic anticipated.

The closest comparison we have to our present time is about 55 million years ago and at the moment we're pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at about 10 times the rate at which it was entering the atmosphere during that period, which was associated with a major extinction.

Rogers says global warming, ocean acidification and lack of water oxygen are the greatest peril to ocean life. They are common factors which researchers have found to be linked within all known mass extinctions. Global warming builds up carbon dioxide which is then absorbed into the oceans, which causes acidification, while run-off of fertilizers and pollution chokes off oxygen in the water column.

Peter Wells, a marine scientist formerly with Environment Canada and now a professor at Dalhousie University, says "Fishing has created more change over the last few hundred years than any other stress. That's the removal of biomass, that's the removal of species and knocking down populations and in some cases so hard they don't recover, such as the northern cod.

These findings come from a recent report titled "Illegal Logging and Related Timber Trade - Dimensions, Drivers, Impacts and Responses" - the most comprehensive scientific analysis published on the topic. This has prompted illegal-wood sellers to shift to markets which have less stringent regulations, such as India and China, which are now the biggest importers of both legal and illegal tropical wood. Organized crime and insecure land rights are big contributors to illegal logging activities around the world.

While illegal logging occurs in most tropical nations, it is especially prevalent in Brazil, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Russia is the main source of boreal and temperate wood. China uses that wood to make flooring, furniture, and other products that it sells domestically and to markets in Europe, Japan, and the U.

Land tenure issues are "profound drivers" of illegal logging. Previous analyses found that land held and managed by local and indigenous communities is less affected by deforestation than government-managed areas. Reducing illegal logging could benefit the communities that live within the forests, as well as to those affected by organized crime.

Illegal conversion of forests to agricultural land is an example that clearly shows the need for a broader cooperation, in this case between forestry and agriculture. Not all financing is made public, so the amount may be more.

The money is aiding a process that scientists say destroys ecosystems, displaces indigenous communities and drenches the region in smog. The Union of Concerned Scientists claims that burning away forests generates one-tenth of total global warming emissions. Yet while endowments and pension funds are divesting from the fossil-fuel industry, and banks are backing away from coal projects, any move away from financing deforestation has been slow to catch on.

In early , scientists monitoring satellite images at Global Forest Watch focused on the destruction of Indonesian rain forests. In Borneo's West Kalimantan province monitors found a charred wasteland with many orangutans driven from their nests. Fingers pointed to the Rajawali Group, a local conglomerate known for its ties to powerful politicians, including Malaysia's Prime Minister. As the banks issued those loans, Rajawali was accused of extensive illegal burning, use of child labor, and the use of force against workers at plantations under its control.

In a report to clients, Credit Suisse Equity Analyst, Priscilla Tjitra, deemed Rajawali's a successful project that increased landholdings for expanded palm oil production.

Carrying Capacity and Ecological Footprints