Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: Hat tip to Jamie Scott: Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products Environmental impact of shipping Environmental monitoring Eutrophication Freshwater environmental quality parameters Groundwater pollution Hypoxia Marine debris Marine pollution Nutrient pollution Ocean acidification Oil spill Septic tank Surface runoff Thermal pollution Turbidity Urban runoff Wastewater Water quality Water stagnation Waterborne diseases. The top three killers used to be heart disease, cancer, and stroke. Labile protein reserves and protein turnover. So, do you change your smoking habits, or do you wait? Saturated terrestrial ecosystems then can contribute both inorganic and organic nitrogen to freshwater, coastal, and marine eutrophication, where nitrogen is also typically a limiting nutrient.
Syllabus & Course Information
Hat tip to John Hawks: Hunter-gatherer mortality, March 28, , http: Journal of Archaeological Science ; Evidence for protection by breast-feeding against infant deaths from infectious diseases in Brazil. The Lancet Aug 8;2 Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: Archives of General Psychiatry May;65 5: Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. The Lancet Feb 1; Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota.
Human milk in comparison to cow milk. In Textbook of gastroenterology and nutrition, ed. Raven Press, , — See also Prentice A. Constituents of human milk. Lipids in human milk. Lipids Dec;34 Butyric and caprylic acid constitute 5. Brain lipid concentrations in bipolar disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research Feb;44 3: Obligate role for ketone body oxidation in neonatal metabolic homeostasis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry Mar 4; 9: In vitro fermentation of breast milk oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jun;72 6: Ruiz-Palacios GM et al. Campylobacter jejuni binds intestinal H O antigen Fuc alpha 1, 2Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc , and fucosyloligosaccharides of human milk inhibit its binding and infection. The Journal of Biological Chemistry Apr 18; Oligosaccharides in human milk: Annual Review of Nutrition ; Coppa GV et al. Changes in carbohydrate composition in human milk over 4 months of lactation.
Pediatrics Mar;91 3: Nature Dec 23; Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids macronutrients. National Academies Press, , , www.
Type of milk feeding affects hematological parameters and serum lipid profile in Japanese infants. Pediatrics International Mar 21, http: Low serum cholesterol in newborn babies, July 14, , http: HDL and immunity, April 12, , http: Blood lipids and infectious disease, part II, July 12, , http: Metabolic rate and organ size during growth from infancy to maturity and during late gestation and early infancy.
Pediatrics Jan;47 1 suppl 2: Advances in cell biology of blood-brain barrier transport. Seminars in Cell Biology Dec;2 6: Blood-brain barrier transport of glucose, free fatty acids, and ketone bodies.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ; The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids. Journal of Nutrition Oct; Hat tip to Barry Groves: Should all animals eat a high-fat, low-carb diet? Digestive physiology of perbivores, July 13, , http: Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Mar;56 3: Macronutrient diet selection in thirteen mouse strains.
Self-selected macronutrient diet affects energy and glucose metabolism in brown fat-ablated mice. Obesity Research Dec;11 Hat tip to Peter Dobromylskyj: Physiological insulin resistance, October 23, , http: The expensive tissue hypothesis: Current Anthropology Apr;36 2: In Food and evolution: Harris M, Ross EB. Temple University Press, , 93— Table 3.
The human colon in evolution: The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. A two-stage model of increased dietary quality in early hominid evolution: Khirurgiia Sofiia ;30 2: Sigmoid colon morphology in the population groups of Durban, South Africa, with special reference to sigmoid volvulus.
Clinical Anatomy May;24 4: Is there a perfect diet? Ethnographic models, archaeological data, and the applicability of modern foraging theory. In Hunter-gatherers in history, archaeology, and anthropology, ed.
Berg, , —, at Hat tip to J Stanton: Big brains require an explanation, part III: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology Apr;33 2: Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D. Obesity Reviews May;6 2: Theall CL et al. Self-selection and regulation of protein: Journal of Nutrition Apr; 4: Protein selection by rats adapted to high or moderately low levels of dietary protein.
Speleogenesis of the Mount Elgon elephant caves, Kenya. GSA special papers , vol. Salt ingestion caves, International Journal of Speleology ;35 1 13— Hat tip to J. Association of the renin-sodium profile with the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension.
Hat tip to Chris Kresser: Shaking up the salt myth: Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Jul 6; 7: The danger of plant foods, June 18, , http: How to minimize hyperglycemic toxicity, October 20, , http: Adiposity in zoo gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla: Case Western Reserve University, February 17, , www. Apes shed pounds while doubling calories on leafy diet, researcher finds.
ScienceDaily, February 21, , www. Corrected weight loss data see errata is from Less EH. Hat tip to John Durant, personal communication. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. International Journal of Experimental Pathology Oct;85 5: Lamb DJ et al.
Dietary copper supplementation reduces atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. Atherosclerosis Sep; 1: Mineral content of the diet alters sucrose-induced obesity in rats. National Academies Press, , —6, , www. Labile protein reserves and protein turnover. Journal of Dairy Science Apr;60 4: Institute of Medicine Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids macronutrients.
The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin. Archives of Pathology Feb;85 2: Protein-energy undernutrition in hospital in-patients. British Journal of Nutrition Jun;83 6: The impact of malnutrition on kidney function. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism ;24 1: Recent advances in parenteral and enteral nutrition: Impaired gut barrier function in malnourished patients.
British Journal of Surgery Sep;83 9: Developmental sequel from early nutritional deficiencies: Conclusive and probability judgements. Journal of Nutrition Feb; 2S suppl: National Academies Press, , —5, www. Maximal rates of excretion and synthesis of urea in normal and cirrhotic subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigation Sep;52 9: Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology , 2: Prolonged meat diets with a study of kidney function and ketosis.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry , Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health. A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. Corpet DE et al. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein. Nutrition and Cancer ;23 3: Clinical effects of two different levels of protein intake on low-birth-weight infants.
Journal of Pediatrics Jun;74 6: Goldman HI et al. Effects of early dietary protein intake on low-birth-weight infants: Journal of Pediatrics Jan;78 1: Late effects of early dietary protein intake on low-birth-weight infants. Journal of Pediatrics Dec;85 6: Lower protein in infant formula is associated with lower weight up to age 2 y: The danger of protein during pregnancy, July 12, , http: Excess methionine suppresses the methylation cycle and inhibits neural tube closure in mouse embryos.
Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society ; Hat tip to Matt Metzgar: Carb intake in healthy centenarians, January 20, , www. Testing protein leverage in lean humans: The nature of nutrition: Princeton University Press, The protein content of muscle. The Journal of Biological Chemistry ;25 2: Hat tip to Adel Moussa: Overtraining, inflammation, insufficient repair: Human muscle protein synthesis and breakdown during and after exercise.
Journal of Applied Physiology Jun; 6: An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. American Journal of Physiology Jul; 1 Pt 1: Churchward-Venne TA et al. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: Hat tip to Chris Highcock: Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise, May 17, , http: Journal of Applied Physiology Aug;73 2: See also Hoffman JR et al.
Effects of ingesting protein in combination with carbohydrate during exercise on endurance performance: Amino Acids Nov;39 5: Jitomir J, Willoughby DS. Leucine for retention of lean mass on a hypocaloric diet. Journal of Medicinal Food Dec;11 4: Life-span extension in mice by preweaning food restriction and by methionine restriction in middle age. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Jul;64 7: Miller RA et al.
Methionine-deficient diet extends mouse lifespan, slows immune and lens aging, alters glucose, T4, IGF-I and insulin levels, and increases hepatocyte MIF levels and stress resistance. Aging Cell Jun;4 3: Orentreich N et al.
Low methionine ingestion by rats extends life span. Journal of Nutrition Feb; 2: Lowered methionine ingestion as responsible for the decrease in rodent mitochondrial oxidative stress in protein and dietary restriction possible implications for humans.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Nov; Pamplona R, Barja G. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, aging and caloric restriction: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta May-Jun; 5—6: Sanchez-Roman I et al. Effects of aging and methionine restriction applied at old age on ROS generation and oxidative damage in rat liver mitochondria.
Biogerontology Aug;13 4: The atherogenic effect of excess methionine intake. Autophagy is required for dietary restriction-mediated life span extension in C. Autophagy Nov—Dec;3 6: Petrovski G, Das DK. Does autophagy take a front seat in lifespan extension? Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Nov;14 A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C. PLoS Genetics Feb;4 2: Autophagy and mechanisms of effective immunity. Frontiers in Immunology ;3: Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: Coronary heart disease in Greenland Inuit: Implications for Western diet patterns.
Arctic Medical Research Apr;48 2: Alternative Medicine Review Dec;10 4: Dietary restriction, glycolysis, hormesis and ageing.
Biogerontology Apr;8 2: Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiological Reviews Jan;90 1: Is it good to eat sugar? British Journal of Nutrition Aug; 3: The relation of low glycaemic index fruit consumption to glycaemic control and risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia Feb;54 2: Fructose induces transketolase flux to promote pancreatic cancer growth. Cancer Research Aug 1;70 Leucine, glucose, and energy metabolism after 3 days of fasting in healthy human subjects.
European Journal of Cell Biology Aug;83 7: The adherent gastrointestinal mucus gel layer: Faure M et al. Development of a rapid and convenient method to purify mucins and determine their in vivo synthesis rate in rats. Analytical Biochemistry Aug 15; 2: Ainsworth BE et al. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology Dec;79 6: Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling.
Journal of Applied Physiology Dec;89 6: High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine. Journal of Applied Physiology Jul; 1: Is there a glycemic threshold for mortality risk?
Diabetes Care May;22 5: Dr Ron Rosedale, November 1, , http: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes UKPDS The Lancet Sep 12; Clinical and Investigative Medicine Aug;18 4: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine May;15 2: Association of hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: Annals of Internal Medicine Sep 21; 6: Prevalence of polyneuropathy in pre-diabetes and diabetes is associated with abdominal obesity and macroangiopathy: Diabetes Care Mar;31 3: Post-challenge blood glucose concentration and stroke mortality rates in non-diabetic men in London: Diabetologia Jul;51 7: Prospective study of hyperglycemia and cancer risk.
Diabetes Care Mar;30 3: Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy. Diabetes Care Aug;24 8: Hat tip to Jenny Ruhl: Starches, sugars and obesity. Nutrients Mar;3 3: ScienceDaily, December 11, , www. Segal MS et al. Is the fructose index more relevant with regards to cardiovascular disease than the glycemic index?
European Journal of Nutrition Oct;46 7: Food processing and the glycemic index. Relationship between the rate of gastric emptying and glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods in young healthy adults. Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Jun;57 6: Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food.
Gut Jun;36 6: Jenkins AL et al. Nutrition Journal Nov 22;9: Perissinotto E et al. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in older lifelong wine drinkers: Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype and diet-gene interactions.
Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding. Hat tip to geoff Adipose tissue triglyceride turnover, de novo lipogenesis, and cell proliferation in humans measured with 2H2O. On the importance of fatty acid composition of membranes for aging.
Journal of Theoretical Biology May 21; 2: Autoxidation of fats and related substances. Pergamon Press, London, , 51— Physiological Reviews Oct;87 4: Integretive and Comparative Biology Nov;50 5: The role of impaired mitochondrial lipid oxidation in obesity.
Biological Research for Nursing Apr;10 4: The adipostat balloon, October 12, , http: Contribution of mitochondria to oxidative stress associated with alcoholic liver disease.
Crescenzo R et al. Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial efficiency in a model of obesity induced by diets rich in fructose. European Journal of Nutrition Apr 28, [epub ahead of print] http: The long life of birds: Oxidation and activation of unsaturated fatty acids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics Apr;81 2: The debate about n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid recommendations for cardiovascular health.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association Feb; 2: Problems with essential fatty acids: Progress in Lipid Research Nov;42 6: The slow discovery of the importance of omega 3 essential fatty acids in human health. Journal of Nutrition Feb; 2 suppl: Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ;68 1: Why is carbon from some polyunsaturates extensively recycled into lipid synthesis? Lipids Apr;38 4: Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men. Linoleic acid is associated with lower long-chain n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in red blood cell lipids of Canadian pregnant women. High dietary omega-6 fatty acids contribute to reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the developing brain and inhibit secondary neurite growth.
Brain Research Oct 27; Effect of cholesterol-lowering diet on mortality from coronary heart-disease and other causes. A twelve-year clinical trial in men and women. The Lancet Oct 21;2 A controlled clinical trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat. Circulation ; 40 suppl: Stephan Guyenet, personal communication. Dayton S et al. Composition of lipids in human serum and adipose tissue during prolonged feeding of a diet high in unsaturated fat.
The Journal of Lipid Research Jan;7 1: Baylin A et al. Adipose tissue biomarkers of fatty acid intake. Witting LA, Lee L. Recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E: Berry EM et al.
The relationship of dietary fat to plasma lipid levels as studied by factor analysis of adipose tissue fatty acid composition in a free-living population of middle-aged American men. London SJ et al. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and diet in postmenopausal US women. Garland M et al. The relation between dietary intake and adipose tissue composition of selected fatty acids in US women. Knutsen SF et al. Comparison of adipose tissue fatty acids with dietary fatty acids as measured by hour recall and food frequency questionnaire in black and white Adventists: Annals of Epidemiology Feb;13 2: Ren J et al.
The Journal of Lipid Research Sep;49 9: Toll-like receptor-2 deficiency enhances non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. BMC Gastroenterology May 28;10 1: Dietary saturated fatty acids: Gastroenterology Aug; 2: Dietary saturated fat reduces alcoholic hepatotoxicity in rats by altering fatty acid metabolism and membrane composition.
Role of adiponectin in the protective action of dietary saturated fat against alcoholic fatty liver in mice. Hepatology Sep;42 3: Effect of dietary fat saturation on ldl oxidation and monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells in vitro. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Nov;16 Mata P et al.
Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n—6 fatty acid-enriched diets modify LDL oxidation and decrease human coronary smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Oct;17 Dietary lipid profile is a determinant of tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition and rate of weight gain in rats.
Journal of Nutrition Mar; 3: Hat tip to George Henderson: Data from tables 1 and 3. The Journal of Biological Chemistry Mar 14; Hat tip to Jamie Scott: Fatty acids, the immune response, and autoimmunity: Mechanisms by which botanical lipids affect inflammatory disorders. Associations between fatty acids in colostrum and breast milk and risk of allergic disease.
Wijga AH et al. Breast milk fatty acids and allergic disease in preschool children: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Feb; 2: Increasing homicide rates and linoleic acid consumption among five Western countries, — Lipids Dec;39 The omega ratio, September 2, , http: Linoleic acid, a dietary n—6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the aetiology of ulcerative colitis: Gut Dec;58 Effect of isocaloric low fat diet on prostate cancer xenograft progression in a hormone deprivation model.
Journal of Urology Apr; 4: Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis. BMC Cancer Jan 30;9: Corn oil in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. British Medical Journal Jun 12;1 Effect of the Anti-Coronary Club program on coronary heart disease.
Low fat, low cholesterol diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The data were subsequently re-analyzed and omega-6 fats appeared even more harmful. Ramsden CE et al. Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet on cardiovascular risk.
The Minnesota Coronary Survey. Arteriosclerosis Jan-Feb;9 1: Controlled trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat for prevention of atherosclerotic complications. The Lancet Nov 16;2 Incidence of cancer in men on a diet high in polyunsaturated fat.
The Lancet Mar 6;1 The Oslo diet-heart study: Circulation 42 —, http: The effect of plasma cholesterol lowering diet in male survivors of myocardial infarction: Acta Medica Scandinavica, Supplementum ; The Lancet Sep 28;2 Turpeinen O et al. Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: International Journal of Epidemiology Jun;8 2: Miettinen M et al. Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease in women: International Journal of Epidemiology Mar;12 1: The Finnish mental hospital trial, July 9, , http: Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids.
Excess omega-3 fatty acid consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation caused shorter life span and abnormal ABRs in old adult offspring. Neurotoxicology and Teratology March—April;32 2: Long-term intake of fish oil increases oxidative stress and decreases lifespan in senescence-accelerated mice. Nutrition Mar;27 3: Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Feb;57 2: Dietary fat and health: Lands WE, Lifestyle diversity, http: Omega fats and cardiovascular disease, September 6, , http: Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Apr;17 4: Watkins BA et al.
Journal of Nutrition Sep; 9: Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry Mar; 3: Su KP et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Apr;69 4: Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Neuropsychopharmacology Aug;13 4: Stoll AL et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: Archives of General Psychiatry May;56 5: Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers.
Hamazaki T et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. Journal of Clinical Investigation Feb 15;97 4: Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: The American Journal of Psychiatry Jan; 1: Hallahan B et al.
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm. Single-centre double-blind randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry Feb; Omega-3 fatty acids improve the diagnosis-related clinical outcome. Critical Care Medicine Apr;34 4: Experimental Medicine and Biology Maywood Jun; 6: Improved outcome after peripheral nerve injury in mice with increased levels of endogenous?
The Journal of Neuroscience Jan 11;32 2: Fat—1 transgenic mice with elevated omega-3 fatty acids are protected from allergic airway responses. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Sep; 9: High pancreatic n-3 fatty acids prevent STZ-induced diabetes in fat-1 mice: Diabetes Apr;60 4: Increased dietary intake of omegapolyunsaturated fatty acids reduces pathological retinal angiogenesis. Nature Medicine Jul;13 7: Transgenic mice rich in endogenous omega-3 fatty acids are protected from colitis.
Melanoma growth is reduced in fat-1 transgenic mice: Berquin IM et al. Modulation of prostate cancer genetic risk by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Journal of Clinical Investigation Jul; 7: Habbel P et al. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses arachidonic acid-induced proliferation of LST human colon carcinoma cells. World Journal of Gastroenterology Mar 7;15 9: Griffitts J et al. Non-mammalian fat-1 gene prevents neoplasia when introduced to a mouse hepatocarcinogenesis model: Omega-3 fatty acids prevent liver neoplasia.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Oct; Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: Circulation Feb 16;99 6: Mediterranean dietary pattern in a randomized trial: Archives of Internal Medicine Jun 8; Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: The Lancet Sep 30;2 Maintenance of lower proportions of n — 6 eicosanoid precursors in phospholipids of human plasma in response to added dietary n — 3 fatty acids.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Dec 10; 2: Circulating nonesterified fatty acid level as a predictive risk factor for sudden death in the population. Circulation Aug 14; 7: Comparison of monounsaturated fat with carbohydrates as a replacement for saturated fat in subjects with a high metabolic risk profile: The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men.
Low-fat high-fiber diet decreased serum and urine androgens in men. Growth hormone effect on the role of fat in nitrogen metabolism. American Journal of Physiology Nov; 5: Growth hormone and protein metabolism. Clinical Nutrition Dec;28 6: From GH to Billy Ghrelin. Cell Metabolism Aug;10 2: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.
Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese: Inverse association of dietary fat with development of ischemic stroke in men. Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Hat tip to Richard D Feinman: What if saturated fat is not the problem?
Ketogenicity of soybean oil, coconut oil and their respective fatty acids for the chick. Journal of Nutrition Dec; Medium-chain triglyceride MCT ketogenic therapy. Epilepsia Nov;49 suppl 8: In vitro killing of Candida albicans by fatty acids and monoglycerides.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Nov;45 Liu S et al. Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.
Mycopathologia Aug; 2: The effects of saturated fatty acids on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites in vitro. Parasitology Research Oct;97 3: Medium-chain fatty acids decrease colonization and invasion through hilA suppression shortly after infection of chickens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jun;70 6: Gantois I et al. Butyrate specifically down-regulates salmonella pathogenicity island 1 gene expression.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jan;72 1: Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: Journal of Investigative Dermatology Oct; Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobials and food components. Journal of Food Science Sep;74 7: In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by fatty acids and monoglycerides.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Sep;42 9: Antibacterial actions of fatty acids and monoglycerides against Helicobacter pylori.
Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Jan;31 1: The antimicrobial function of milk lipids. Advances in Nutritional Research ; Studies on fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood lipids of Polynesians.
I have heard that coconut is bad for the heart and that it is good for the heart. Harvard Heart Letter Sep;17 1: Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction. Value of low-density lipoprotein particle number and size as predictors of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy men and women: Journal of the American College of Cardiology Feb 6;49 5: Diabetes Care Nov;23 Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects.
Same thing with diabetes and obesity. The more and more healthy we eat, the better. Any movement along the spectrum towards healthier eating can accrue significant benefits.
You can show this experimentally. You take vegetarians and give them meat, pay them enough to eat it, and their blood pressures go up. And this is after the vast majority reduced or stopped their blood pressure medications completely. They had to reduce their medications because their pressures were getting so low that if they were on drugs, they could fall over and crack their heads open!
So, does the American Heart Association recommend a no-meat diet? No, they recommend a low-meat diet, the so-called DASH diet. No, they were aware of the landmark research. See, the DASH diet was explicitly designed with the 1 goal of capturing the blood pressure-lowering benefits of a vegetarian diet, yet contain enough animal products to make it palatable to the general public. In their defense, you can see what they were thinking.
So, maybe the dairy industry should require toxin screenings of the milk supply. Good luck with that. You could always just not drink it, but then, what would happen to your bones? Swedish researchers decided to put it to the test.
Three glasses a day was associated with nearly twice the risk of premature death. And they had significantly more bone and hip fractures, too. More milk, more fractures. Milk-drinking men also had higher rates of death. But for some reason, you never see milk ads like this [image of milk carton among gravestones]. So, where does this leave us?
These are the top fifteen reasons that Americans die, and a plant-based diet can help prevent nearly all of them; can help treat more than half of them; and, even, in some cases, even reverse the progression of disease, including our top three killers.
There are drugs that, in some circumstances, can help, too. You can take one drug to treat cholesterol every day for the rest of your life; another drug for blood sugars; a couple different pills for high blood pressure. No, a liver-healthy diet is a heart-healthy diet, is a brain-healthy diet. One diet to rule them all.
And what about drug side effects? Wait a second—, deaths a year? That means that the sixth leading cause of death is actually doctors! Seriously, though, compared to 15, American vegetarians, meat-eaters had about twice the odds of being on aspirin, sleeping pills, tranquilizers, antacids, painkillers, blood pressure medications, laxatives of course , and insulin.
Anytime anyone tries to sell you on some new diet, ask them one simple question: You know, the most likely reason you and everyone you love will die? Most deaths in the United States are preventable, and related to nutrition. According to the most rigorous analysis of risk factors ever published, the 1 cause of death in the United States and the 1 cause of disability is our diet, which has since bumped tobacco smoking to killer 2. Smoking now only kills about a half million Americans every year—whereas our diet now kills hundreds of thousands more.
So, let me end with a thought experiment. Imagine yourself a smoker, back in the s. The average per capita cigarette consumption was about 4, cigarettes a year. The media was telling you to smoke, and famous athletes agreed. I mean, you want to keep fit and stay slender. So, you make sure to smoke and eat hot dogs to keep trim. Sugar is a lot better than that apple there, right? So, better safe than sorry, and smoke.
So, there was a little conflict there. The leader of the U. And if you do get irritated? No problem; your doctor can always write you a prescription for cigarettes. Babe Ruth spoke of proof positive medical science—that is, when he still could speak, before he died of throat cancer. Now if, by some miracle, there was a SmokingFacts.
When famed surgeon Michael DeBakey was asked why his studies published back in the 30s linking smoking and lung cancer were simply ignored, he had to remind people about what it was like back then. We were a smoking society. It was in the movies; it was everywhere.
Medical meetings were one heavy haze of smoke. Smoking was, in a word, normal. So, back to our thought experiment: Do you change, or do you wait? With access to the science, you realize that the best available balance of evidence suggests that your smoking habit is probably not good for you. So, do you change your smoking habits, or do you wait? If you wait until your physician tells you, between puffs, to quit, you could have cancer by then.
If you wait until the powers that be officially recognize it, like the Surgeon General did in the subsequent decade, you could be dead by then. No, it was a powerful industry. So, one wonders how many people are currently suffering needlessly from dietary diseases. As a smoker in the 50s, on one hand, you had all of society, the government, the medical profession itself telling you to smoke. According to the latest review, the total sum of evidence suggests that mortality from all causes put together, and many of our dreaded diseases—heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes—is significantly lower in those eating plant-based.
What do you do? With access to the science, you realize that the best available balance of evidence suggests that your eating habits are probably not so good for you. So, do you change your eating habits, or do you wait? If you wait until your physician tells you, between bites, to change your diet, it may be too late. Well, there were a few gallant souls ahead of their time, writing in, as there are today, standing up against industries killing millions.
But why not more? Today, the food industry uses the same tobacco industry tactics—supplying misinformation, twisting the science.
How many more people have to die, though, before the CDC encourages people not to wait for open-heart surgery to start eating healthy as well? He was asked why he follows his own advice that he gives to patients, to eat a plant-based diet.
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It does not look like those choosing the drug route will be climbing mountains anytime soon. Okay, but grape seeds? The sixth leading cause of death… is me! Thankfully, I can be prevented with a plant-based diet. Want to solve the healthcare crisis? Back then, even the paleo folks were smoking, and so were the doctors. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. Western diseases and their emergence related to diet.
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Cancer incidence in vegetarians: Am J Clin Nutr. Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Meat and cheese may be as bad for you as smoking. University of Southern California Press Room.
Diets high in meat, eggs and dairy could be as harmful to health as smoking. Impact of dietary shift to higher-antioxidant foods in COPD: Addition of açaí Euterpe oleracea to cigarettes has a protective effect against emphysema in mice.
Protein oxidation in emulsified cooked burger patties with added fruit extracts: Influence on colour and texture deterioration during chill storage. The effect of a kiwi fruit based solution on meat traits in beef m. Özvural EB, Vural H. Grape seed flour is a viable ingredient to improve the nutritional profile and reduce lipid oxidation of frankfurters. Potassium intake and stroke risk: Sodium and potassium intakes among US adults: Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
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Comparison of a vegetable-based soya and an animal-based low-protein diet in predialysis chronic renal failure patients. Effects of acute protein loads of different sources on renal function of patients with diabetic nephropathy.
Tohoku J Exp Med. Impaired renal response to a meat meal in insulin-dependent diabetes: Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease among adults in the United States. Uribarri J, Oh MS. The key to halting progression of CKD might be in the produce market, not in the pharmacy. Vegan supplemented diet in nephrotic syndrome. Immunostimulatory in vitro and in vivo effects of a water-soluble extract from kale. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption improves antibody response to vaccination in older people: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.
Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: Food sources of arachidonic acid PFA Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults.
A worksite vegan nutrition program is well-accepted and improves health-related quality of life and work productivity. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a nutrition intervention program in a multiethnic adult population in the corporate setting reduces depression and anxiety and improves quality of life: Am J Health Promot.
Genetic evidence supporting the fecal-perineal-urethral hypothesis in cystitis caused by Escherichia coli. Chicken as reservoir for extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in humans, Canada. Is Escherichia coli urinary tract infection a zoonosis? Proof of direct link with production animals and meat. The colonization of the human gut by antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli from chickens. The effectiveness of hygiene procedures for prevention of cross-contamination from chicken carcases in the domestic kitchen.
Reduction of faecal coliform, coliform and heterotrophic plate count bacteria in the household kitchen and bathroom by disinfection with hypochlorite cleaners.
Viral Meat Spray Bren L. Bacteria-eating virus approved as food additive. Effect of extracted housefly pupae peptide mixture on chilled pork preservation. Effect of vegetable and animal protein diets in chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Dig Dis. An effective approach to high blood pressure control: J Am Coll Cardiol. Blood Pressure in the African Native. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: Low blood pressure in vegetarians: Le LT, Sabaté J.
Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: A multicenter controlled-feeding study of dietary patterns to lower blood pressure. The preventable causes of death in the United States: Does a vegan diet reduce risk for Parkinson's disease?.
Dairy foods intake and risk of Parkinson's disease: Good and bad sides of diet in Parkinson's disease. Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: J Bone Miner Res. Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: