Vitamin B9 - Folate, Folic Acid

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Neuroscience For Kids
In HIV, the envelope that covers the virion is formed from the outermost membrane of the host cell; such "self-cloaked" viruses make it difficult for the immune system to identify them as "non-self" structures. In addition to physical damage, peripheral neuropathy may be caused by many other medical problems, including genetic conditions, metabolic conditions such as diabetes , inflammatory conditions such as Guillain—Barré syndrome , vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases such as leprosy or shingles , or poisoning by toxins such as heavy metals. Chemically, the brain and spinal cord are isolated by the so-called blood—brain barrier , which prevents most types of chemicals from moving from the bloodstream into the interior of the CNS. When the threshold is reached the axon or dendrite changes. The innate response is usually triggered when microbes are identified by pattern recognition receptors , which recognize components that are conserved among broad groups of microorganisms, [15] or when damaged, injured or stressed cells send out alarm signals, many of which but not all are recognized by the same receptors as those that recognize pathogens. Overactive immune responses comprise the other end of immune dysfunction, particularly the autoimmune disorders.

What Is Folic Acid/Vitamin B9?

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Very high doses above 15, mcg can cause stomach problems, sleep disturbances, skin reactions, and seizures. The absorption of supplemental folic acid is reduced slightly when taken with food. Folic acid absorption or depletion may occur in those who use alcohol excessively, who use large amounts of antacids, are prescribed antiobiotics, who take aspirin chronically and in large doses, or who take oral contraceptives. In addition, folic acid, when taken along with vitamin B12, may increase the risk of masking an underlying vitamin B12 deficiency.

Caution is advised when taking both of these vitamins together. Stay Connected With Dr. Read more tips, recipes, and insights on a wide variety of topics from Dr. To find out which supplements are right for you, take the Weil Vitamin Advisor. This 3-step questionnaire requires just minutes to complete, and generates a free, no-obligation vitamin and nutritional supplement recommendation that is personalized to meet your….

The nervous system both synthesizes and circulates neurotransmitters, which are brain chemicals that regulate heartbeat, respiration and digestion; B vitamins are essential to this process. Vitamins C and E are anti-aging for the nervous system, and magnesium acts to calm the nerves. Sea vegetables, such as seaweed, are another food that can help in healing the nervous system. According to Tom Monte in "The Complete Guide to Natural Healing," sea vegetables are high in minerals, and minerals are essential to proper nervous system function.

Minerals assist a variety of the nervous system's functions, from oxygen absorption to clear brain function. Video of the Day. Natural Sources of L-Arginine. Fatty Liver Diet Foods List. Foods to Avoid Before Bed. One cell is located in the brain stem or spinal cord. It is connected by nerve fibers to the other cell, which is located in a cluster of nerve cells called an autonomic ganglion.

Nerve fibers from these ganglia connect with internal organs. Most of the ganglia for the sympathetic division are located just outside the spinal cord on both sides of it. The ganglia for the parasympathetic division are located near or in the organs they connect with. Many organs are controlled primarily by either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic division.

Sometimes the two divisions have opposite effects on the same organ. For example, the sympathetic division increases blood pressure, and the parasympathetic division decreases it. Overall, the two divisions work together to ensure that the body responds appropriately to different situations. Thus, the sympathetic division increases heart rate and the force of heart contractions and widens dilates the airways to make breathing easier. It causes the body to release stored energy.

Muscular strength is increased. This division also causes palms to sweat, pupils to dilate, and hair to stand on end. It slows body processes that are less important in emergencies, such as digestion and urination.

Generally, the parasympathetic division conserves and restores. It slows the heart rate and decreases blood pressure.

It stimulates the digestive tract to process food and eliminate wastes. Energy from the processed food is used to restore and build tissues. Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are involved in sexual activity, as are the parts of the nervous system that control voluntary actions and transmit sensation from the skin somatic nervous system.

The speed at which energy is used to perform body functions while a person is at rest basal metabolic rate. Two chemical messengers neurotransmitters are used to communicate within the autonomic nervous system:.

Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic fibers. Fibers that secrete norepinephrine are called adrenergic fibers.

Generally, acetylcholine has parasympathetic inhibiting effects and norepinephrine has sympathetic stimulating effects. However, acetylcholine has some sympathetic effects. For example, it sometimes stimulates sweating or makes the hair stand on end. Autonomic disorders may result from disorders that damage autonomic nerves or parts of the brain that help control body processes, or they may occur on their own, without a clear cause. Diabetes the most common cause. Disorders of the neuromuscular junction where nerves connect with muscles , such as botulism and Lambert-Eaton syndrome.

In men, difficulty initiating and maintaining an erection erectile dysfunction can be an early symptom of an autonomic disorder. Autonomic disorders commonly cause dizziness or light-headedness due to an excessive decrease in blood pressure when a person stands orthostatic hypotension. People may sweat less or not at all and thus become intolerant of heat. The eyes and mouth may be dry.

After eating, a person with an autonomic disorder may feel prematurely full or even vomit because the stomach empties very slowly called gastroparesis. Some people pass urine involuntarily urinary incontinence , often because the bladder is overactive. Other people have difficulty emptying the bladder urine retention because the bladder is underactive. Constipation may occur, or control of bowel movements may be lost.

Doctors can check for signs of autonomic disorders during the physical examination. For example, they measure blood pressure and heart rate while a person is lying down or sitting and after the person stands to check how blood pressure changes when position is changed.

Physiology of the Endocrine System