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During the autumn-spring period, when wolves are more active, they willingly lie out in the open, whatever their location. However, Nutrisystem provides more than just meals. But now I am older and I dread the fact it may take me years to lose all this fat. The audio is poor or missing. I got transferred around many times, and never had any help at all. For me, it has been a good way to reset after weight gain, and then I can go back to focusing on eating healthy and preparing meals on my own, sort of like you plan to do. I have used your plan several years ago and did loose weight, but have gained some back.
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Wolf fur provides better insulation than dog fur, and does not collect ice when warm breath is condensed against it.
Older wolves generally have more white hairs in the tip of the tail, along the nose and on the forehead. The winter fur is retained longest in lactating females, though with some hair loss around their nipples. Coat color ranges from almost pure white through various shades of blond, cream, and ochre to grays, browns, and blacks,  with variation in fur color tending to increase in higher latitudes. The gray wolf is a social animal, whose basic social unit consists of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair's adult offspring.
In the rare cases where other wolves are adopted, the adoptee is almost invariably an immature animal 1—3 years of age unlikely to compete for breeding rights with the mated pair. In some cases, a lone wolf is adopted into a pack to replace a deceased breeder. Wolves are highly territorial animals, and generally establish territories far larger than they require to survive in order to assure a steady supply of prey.
Territory size depends largely on the amount of prey available and the age of the pack's pups, tending to increase in size in areas with low prey populations  or when the pups reach the age of 6 months, thus having the same nutritional needs as adults.
Wolves defend their territories from other packs through a combination of scent marking , direct attacks and howling see Communication. Scent marking is used for territorial advertisement, and involves urination, defecation and ground scratching.
Such markers can last for 2—3 weeks,  and are typically placed near rocks, boulders, trees, or the skeletons of large animals. The gray wolf is generally monogamous ,  with mated pairs usually remaining together for life.
Upon the death of one mated wolf, pairs are quickly re-established. Since males often predominate in any given wolf population, unpaired females are a rarity. Such gray wolves are termed " Casanova wolves" and, unlike males from established packs, they do not form pair bonds with the females they mate with. Some gray wolf packs may have multiple breeding females this way, as is the case in Yellowstone National Park.
This might take place if the original parents die or are for some reason separated from them. The age of first breeding in gray wolves depends largely on environmental factors: This is further demonstrated by the fact that captive wolves have been known to breed as soon as they reach 9—10 months, while the youngest recorded breeding wolves in the wild were 2 years old.
Females are capable of producing pups every year, with one litter annually being the average. Unlike the coyote, the gray wolf never reaches reproductive senescence. The gestation period lasts 62—75 days, with pups usually being born in the summer period.
Wolves bear relatively large pups in small litters compared to other canid species. The milk canines erupt after one month. Pups first leave the den after 3 weeks. Mother wolves do not leave the den for the first few weeks, relying on the fathers to provide food for them and their young. Pups begin to eat solid food at the age of 3—4 weeks.
Pups have a fast growth rate during their first four months of life: Actual fights to establish hierarchy usually occur at 5—8 weeks of age. This is in contrast to young foxes and coyotes, which may begin fighting even before the onset of play behavior. Although social animals, single wolves or mated pairs typically have higher success rates in hunting than do large packs, with single wolves having occasionally been observed to kill large prey such as moose , bison and muskoxen unaided.
Because of this, it rarely manages to capture hidden hares or birds, though it can easily follow fresh tracks. The actual killing method varies according to prey species. With large prey, mature wolves usually avoid attacking frontally, instead focusing on the rear and sides of the animal. Large prey, such as moose, is killed by biting large chunks of flesh from the soft perineum area, causing massive blood loss.
With small, mouse -like prey, wolves leap in a high arc and immobilize it with their forepaws. Such instances are common in domestic animals, but rare in the wild. In the wild, surplus killing primarily occurs during late winter or spring, when snow is unusually deep thus impeding the movements of prey  or during the denning period, when wolves require a ready supply of meat when denbound. Once prey is brought down, wolves begin to feed excitedly, ripping and tugging at the carcass in all directions, and bolting down large chunks of it.
When food is scarce, this is done at the expense of other family members, especially non-pups. Once the breeding pair has finished eating, the rest of the family tears off pieces of the carcass and transport them to secluded areas where they can eat in peace.
Wolves typically commence feeding by consuming the larger internal organs of their prey, such as the heart , liver , lungs and stomach lining. The kidneys and spleen are eaten once they are exposed, followed by the muscles. The gray wolf's expressive behavior is more complex than that of the coyote and golden jackal, as necessitated by its group living and hunting habits.
While less gregarious canids generally possess simple repertoires of visual signals, wolves have more varied signals that subtly inter grade in intensity. Passive submission usually occurs as a reaction to the approach of a dominant animal , and consists of the submissive wolf lying partly on its back and allowing the dominant wolf to sniff its anogenital area.
Active submission occurs often as a form of greeting, and involves the submissive wolf approaching another in a low posture, and licking the other wolf's face. The mouthing of each other's muzzles is a friendly gesture, while clamping on the muzzle with bared teeth is a dominance display.
Similar to humans, gray wolves have facial color patterns in which the gaze direction can be easily identified, although this is often not the case in other canid species. In , a study compared the facial color pattern across 25 canid species. The results suggested that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication, and that especially gray wolves use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.
Gray wolves howl to assemble the pack usually before and after hunts , to pass on an alarm particularly at a den site , to locate each other during a storm or unfamiliar territory and to communicate across great distances. Pups almost never howl, while yearling wolves produce howls ending in a series of dog-like yelps. The pitch usually remains constant or varies smoothly, and may change direction as many as four or five times.
When pursuing prey, they emit a higher pitched howl, vibrating on two notes. When closing in on their prey, they emit a combination of a short bark and a howl. The two are however mutually intelligible , as North American wolves have been recorded to respond to European-style howls made by biologists.
Other vocalisations of wolves are usually divided into three categories: Wolves do not bark as loudly or continuously as dogs do, but bark a few times and retreat from perceived danger. Pups commonly growl when playing. One variation of the howl is accompanied by a high pitched whine, which precedes a lunging attack. Olfaction is probably the wolf's most acute sense, and plays a fundamental role in communication.
The wolf has a large number of apocrine sweat glands on the face, lips, back, and between the toes. The odor produced by these glands varies according to the individual wolf's microflora and diet, giving each a distinct "odor fingerprint". A combination of apocrine and eccrine sweat glands on the feet allows the wolf to deposit its scent whilst scratching the ground, which usually occurs after urine marking and defecation during the breeding season. The follicles present on the guard hairs from the wolf's back have clusters of apocrine and sebaceous glands at their bases.
As the skin on the back is usually folded, this provides a microclimate for bacterial propagation around the glands. During piloerection, the guard hairs on the back are raised and the skin folds spread, thus releasing scent. The pre-caudal scent glands may play a role in expressing aggression, as combative wolves raise the base of their tails whilst drooping the tip, thus positioning the scent glands at the highest point.
The components of anal sac secretions vary according to season and gender, thus indicating that the secretions provide information related to gender and reproductive state. The secretions of the preputial glands may advertise hormonal condition or social position, as dominant wolves have been observed to stand over subordinates, apparently presenting the genital area for investigation,  which may include genital licking. During the breeding season, female wolves secrete substances from the vagina , which communicate the females' reproductive state, and can be detected by males from long distances.
Urine marking is the best-studied means of olfactory communication in wolves. Its exact function is debated, though most researchers agree that its primary purpose is to establish boundaries. Wolves urine mark more frequently and vigorously in unfamiliar areas, or areas of intrusion, where the scent of other wolves or canids is present.
So-called raised leg urination RLU is more common in male wolves than in females, and may serve the purpose of maximizing the possibility of detection by conspecifics, as well as reflect the height of the marking wolf. Only dominant wolves typically use RLU, with subordinate males continuing to use the juvenile standing posture throughout adulthood.
The gray wolf is a habitat generalist, and can occur in deserts , grasslands , forests and arctic tundras. Habitat use by gray wolves is strongly correlated with the abundance of prey, snow conditions, absence or low livestock densities, road densities, human presence and topography. The warmth of the footpads is regulated independently of the rest of the body, and is maintained at just above tissue-freezing point where the pads come in contact with ice and snow.
During the autumn-spring period, when wolves are more active, they willingly lie out in the open, whatever their location. Actual dens are usually constructed for pups during the summer period. When building dens, females make use of natural shelters such as fissures in rocks, cliffs overhanging riverbanks and holes thickly covered by vegetation.
Sometimes, the den is the appropriated burrow of smaller animals such as foxes, badgers or marmots. An appropriated den is often widened and partly remade. On rare occasions, female wolves dig burrows themselves, which are usually small and short with 1—3 openings. The odour of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds such as magpies and ravens.
As there are few convenient places for burrows, wolf dens are usually occupied by animals of the same family.
Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles , paved roads and railways. Although wolves primarily feed on medium to large sized ungulates , they are not fussy eaters. Smaller sized animals that may supplement the diet of wolves include marmots , hares , badgers , foxes , weasels , ground squirrels , mice , hamsters , voles and other rodents , as well as insectivores. They frequently eat waterfowl and their eggs.
When such foods are insufficient, they prey on lizards , snakes , frogs , rarely toads and large insects as available. In times of scarcity, wolves readily eat carrion , visiting cattle burial grounds and slaughter houses. In Eurasia, many gray wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage in areas with dense human activity, though wild ungulates such as moose , red deer , roe deer and wild boar are still the most important food sources in Russia and the more mountainous regions of Eastern Europe.
Other prey species include reindeer , argali , mouflon , wisent , saiga , ibex , chamois , wild goats , fallow deer and musk deer. Animals preferred as prey by North American wolves include moose, white-tailed deer , elk , mule deer , bighorn sheep , Dall's sheep , American bison , muskox and caribou.
Wolves supplement their diet with fruit and vegetable matter. They willingly eat the berries of mountain ash , lily of the valley , bilberries , blueberries and cowberry. Other fruits include nightshade , apples and pears. They readily visit melon fields during the summer months.
Gray wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur. In North America, incidents of gray wolves killing coyotes are common, particularly in winter, when coyotes feed on wolf kills. Wolves may attack coyote den sites, digging out and killing their pups, though rarely eating them. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them. Brown bears typically dominate wolf packs in disputes over carcasses, while wolf packs mostly prevail against bears when defending their den sites.
Both species kill each other's young. Wolves eat the brown bears they kill, while brown bears seem to only eat young wolves. The majority of black bear encounters with wolves occur in the species' northern range, with no interactions being recorded in Mexico.
Wolves have been recorded on numerous occasions to actively seek out black bears in their dens and kill them without eating them. Unlike brown bears, black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills. Wolves may encounter striped hyenas in Israel, Central Asia and India, usually in disputes over carcasses. Striped hyenas feed extensively on wolf-killed carcasses in areas where the two species interact. One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them,  but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas.
Large wolf populations limit the numbers of small to medium-sized felines. Wolves encounter cougars along portions of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain ranges. Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting on different elevations. In winter, however, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely.
Wolves in packs usually dominate cougars and can steal kills. They have been reported killing mothers and their kittens. Wolves may kill lynxes by running them down, or killing them before they can escape into trees. Leftovers of wolf kills are sometimes scavenged by wolverines.
Wolverines usually wait until the wolves are done feeding, but have been known to drive away wolves from kills. However, there have been confirmed reports of wolf packs killing wolverines.
Other than humans, tigers appear to be the only serious predators of wolves. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human persecution decreases tiger numbers. Proven cases of tigers killing wolves are rare and attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature, with at least four proven records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them.
However, deliberate human persecution has reduced the species' range to about one third, because of livestock predation and fear of attacks on humans. Wolf population declines have been arrested since the s, and have fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range, due to legal protection, changes in land-use and rural human population shifts to cities.
Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the species. Despite these threats, because of the gray wolf's relatively widespread range and stable population, it is classified as least concern by the IUCN.
Although wolf-dog hybridization in Europe has raised concern among conservation groups fearing for the gray wolf's purity, genetic tests show that introgression of dog genes into European gray wolf populations does not pose a significant threat. Also, as wolf and dog mating seasons do not fully coincide, the likelihood of wild wolves and dogs mating and producing surviving offspring is small. The extermination of Northern Europe 's wolves first became an organized effort during the Middle Ages , and continued until the late 19th century.
In England , wolf persecution was enforced by legislation , and the last wolf was killed in the early sixteenth century during the reign of Henry VII. Wolves lasted longer in Scotland , where they sheltered in vast tracts of forest, which were subsequently burned down.
Wolves managed to survive in the forests of Braemar and Sutherland until The extirpation of wolves in Ireland followed a similar course, with the last wolf believed to have been killed in The Sami extirpated wolves in northern Sweden in organized drives. By , few wolves remained in Sweden, because of the use of snowmobiles in hunting them, with the last specimen being killed in The gray wolf was exterminated in Denmark in and Norway's last wolf was killed in The species was decimated in 20th century Finland, despite regular dispersals from Russia.
The gray wolf was only present in the eastern and northern parts of Finland by , though its numbers increased after World War II.
In Central Europe , wolves were dramatically reduced in number during the early nineteenth century, because of organized hunts and reductions in ungulate populations. In Bavaria , the last wolf was killed in , and had disappeared from the Rhine regions by Today, wolves have returned to the area.
The louveterie was abolished after the French Revolution in , but was re-established in In , up to 1, wolves were killed, with many more by poison. In Eastern Europe , wolves were never fully exterminated, because of the area's contiguity with Asia and its large forested areas. However, Eastern European wolf populations were reduced to very low numbers by the late nineteenth century.
Wolves were extirpated in Slovakia during the first decade of the twentieth century and, by the mid-twentieth century, could only be found in a few forested areas in eastern Poland. Wolves in the eastern Balkans benefitted from the region's contiguity with the former Soviet Union and large areas of plains, mountains and farmlands. Wolves in Hungary occurred in only half the country around the start of the 20th century, and were largely restricted to the Carpathian Basin.
Wolf populations in Romania remained largely substantial, with an average of 2, wolves being killed annually out of a population of 4, from — An all-time low was reached in , when the population was reduced to 1, animals. The extermination of wolves in Bulgaria was relatively recent, as a previous population of about 1, animals in was reduced to about — in In Greece, the species disappeared from the southern Peloponnese in Despite periods of intense hunting during the eighteenth century, wolves never disappeared in the western Balkans, from Albania to the former Yugoslavia.
In Southern Europe , wolf extermination was not as complete as in Northern Europe, because of greater cultural tolerance of the species. Wolf populations only began declining in the Iberian Peninsula in the early 19th-century, and was reduced by a half of its original size by Wolf bounties were regularly paid in Italy as late as The recovery of European wolf populations began after the s, when traditional pastoral and rural economies declined and thus removed the need to heavily persecute wolves.
By the s, small and isolated wolf populations expanded in the wake of decreased human density in rural areas and the recovery of wild prey populations.
The gray wolf has been fully protected in Italy since , and now holds a population of over 1,, By the wolves in the Western Alps imposed a significant burden on traditional sheep and goat husbandry with a loss of over 5, animals in In Spain , the species occurs in Galicia , Leon , and Asturias.
Although hundreds of Iberian wolves are illegally killed annually, the population has expanded south across the river Duero and east to the Asturias and Pyrenees Mountains. In , wolves began recolonising central Sweden after a twelve-year absence, and have since expanded into southern Norway.
As of , the total number of Swedish and Norwegian wolves is estimated to be at least one hundred, including eleven breeding pairs.
The gray wolf is fully protected in Sweden and partially controlled in Norway. The Scandinavian wolf populations owe their continued existence to neighbouring Finland's contiguity with the Republic of Karelia , which houses a large population of wolves.
Furthermore, the decline in the moose populations has reduced the wolf's food supply. Wolf populations in Poland have increased to about — individuals since being classified as a game species in Poland plays a fundamental role in providing routes of expansion into neighbouring Central European countries. In the east, its range overlaps with populations in Lithuania, Belarus , Ukraine , and Slovakia. A population in western Poland expanded into eastern Germany and in the first pups were born on German territory.
A few Slovakian wolves disperse into the Czech Republic, where they are afforded full protection. Wolves in Slovakia, Ukraine and Croatia may disperse into Hungary, where the lack of cover hinders the buildup of an autonomous population. Although wolves have special status in Hungary, they may be hunted with a year-round permit if they cause problems.
Romania has a large population of wolves, numbering 2, animals. The wolf has been a protected animal in Romania since , although the law is not enforced. The number of wolves in Albania and Macedonia is largely unknown, despite the importance the two countries have in linking wolf populations from Greece to those of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Although protected, sometimes wolves are still illegally killed in Greece, and their future is uncertain.
Wolf numbers have declined in Bosnia and Herzegovina since , while the species is fully protected in neighbouring Croatia and Slovenia. High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage. A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania , and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse.
Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS". Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.
Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e.
As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use. From the mids onward, the media reported "roid rage" as a side effect of AAS.
A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation. Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.
The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures. A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin.
The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users,  but little systematic evidence. A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data.
Androgens such as testosterone , androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone are required for the development of organs in the male reproductive system , including the seminal vesicles , epididymis , vas deferens , penis and prostate. The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action.
The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell.
From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes  or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles.
As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells.
Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength. The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development.
Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm.
Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e. This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects.
A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect. Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements.
The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent. Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed.
The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body. After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use.
Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press. The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays. The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete.
An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR. Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS. Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well.
The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e. The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose. The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways.
The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration. A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist.
Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied.
In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.
The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency.
The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters. In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U.
The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly. The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters. Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Androgens were discovered in the s and were characterized as having effects described as androgenic i.
Although anabolic steroid was originally intended to specifically describe testosterone-derived steroids with a marked dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effect, it is applied today indiscriminately to all steroids with AR agonism-based anabolic effects regardless of their androgenic potency, including even non-synthetic steroids like testosterone itself.
The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: Unlawful distribution or possession with intent to distribute AAS as a first offense is punished by up to ten years in prison.
Those guilty of buying or selling AAS in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. In Canada, researchers have concluded that steroid use among student athletes is extremely widespread. A study conducted in by the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport found that nearly 83, Canadians between the ages of 11 and 18 use steroids. AAS are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand. The history of the U. The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of AAS and human growth hormone.
By the early s, after AAS were scheduled in the U. In the Controlled Substances Act, AAS are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens , progestins , and corticosteroids that promote muscle growth. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances , with effect from January 20, In the United Kingdom, AAS are classified as class C drugs for their illegal abuse potential, which puts them in the same class as benzodiazepines.
Part 1 drugs are subject to full import and export controls with possession being an offence without an appropriate prescription. There is no restriction on the possession when it is part of a medicinal product. Part 2 drugs require a Home Office licence for importation and export unless the substance is in the form of a medicinal product and is for self-administration by a person. Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting AAS in sports including Denmark,  France,  the Netherlands  and Sweden.
United States federal law enforcement officials have expressed concern about AAS use by police officers. It's not that we set out to target cops, but when we're in the middle of an active investigation into steroids, there have been quite a few cases that have led back to police officers," says Lawrence Payne, a spokesman for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.
Following the murder-suicide of Chris Benoit in , the Oversight and Government Reform Committee investigated steroid usage in the wrestling industry. The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids. AAS are frequently produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but, in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small home-made underground laboratories, usually from raw substances imported from abroad.
As with most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. In the late s, the worldwide trade in illicit AAS increased significantly, and authorities announced record captures on three continents. In , Finnish authorities announced a record seizure of It would be the counselor that I spoke to before I spoke to Kim.
We are so sorry that you had such a poor experience. We will definitely be looking into this and reaching out soon. I had a question about my food. Chat with your counselor. Very helpful but our chat was interrupted. I need to know how to continue after the first week. I am still confused on how to continue after the first week. Thank you for reaching out. We will be assigning this to a member of the Consumer Experience team to reach out and assist you.
The quality of food was pretty good with several options to choose from. Unfortunately when they were out of stock they substituted other food! Changing your plan such as delivery frequency was very difficult and why I left. Thank you for the feedback. We are sorry that you left for those reason.
We will be reaching out to get further information. Have a good one! Over the last several months, I have tried over and over to resolve an ongoing problem with order fulfillment. Customer service refused to help and refused my repeated requests to escalate the issue and finally Nutrisystem decided to dump me. Even in my last e-mail communication with Nutrisystem where I yet again outlined the problem, the reply back from Nutrisystem completely ignored the majority of what I wrote.
It looks like if Nutrisystem doesn't say anything about the problem, then it magically doesn't exist somehow. This shows that Nutrisystem has drastically fallen in terms of focusing on customer needs and flat out refuses to deal ethically with the customer.
We sincerely apologize for your experience. We certainly do not want a long-time member to feel such a way. We will be investigating this and reaching out soon. I have had a couple questions for your people there and I emailed them for a answer.
First reply was very fast, second was a bit slower but they explained to me the reason why. I have been very satisfied with everything from Nutrisystem!!! Thank you for your patience and understanding. We are happy to hear you got the answers you needed. We wish you the best of luck on the program! This is the 2nd time I've been on the NutriSystem plan.
First time was a hit. Lost almost all my weight and kept it off for over a year. Just a little more weight to lose so I ordered again for 2 months. First shipment arrived on time and the food was terrific.
Second shipment has the frozen food arrive a couple days late. The 2nd shipment of non frozen food is still not here after being over a week, now almost a week and a half late. How am I to stay on the regiment with half the menu missing for over a week? My assistant called NS as she ordered for me and asked for help—reimbursement— compensation of some sort.
The reply from Nutri system? I even referred you to my sister and brother in law— who both signed up. We apologize that your 2nd order took longer than expected to get to you.
We completely understand how this can throw someone off. We will be looking into this and reaching out. I sincerely appreciate all the help that Sheila offered. I won't hesitate to contact your Team Rep should I have other questions.
See three emails I've previously sent. You don't honor your own company's policies. Food was extremely poorly packed, melted and opened packaging. We are sorry that you had such a poor experience with us. We will be taking a look at your account and reaching out shortly. Customers can benefit from an online health tracking platform and individualized counseling from dieticians and weight loss coaches.
Nutrisystem offers separate plans for men and women, with different options and price points customized to your weight loss goals. With meals containing 12 grams or less of sugar, Nutrisystem takes the guesswork out of choosing optimal low-glycemic foods to stabilize blood sugar -- which could be good for people with any degree of insulin resistance. Any busy person who does not have time to prepare their own meals would benefit from having frozen and other pre-packaged meals and snacks delivered to their home.
Nutrisystem will ship all the food you need to your doorstep, with free shipping included. You can also find their products on QVC, at Costco and at several major grocers and mass retailers like Kroger and Walmart. Transition and maintenance plan: This program provides long-term fat loss success rather than just focusing on initial weight loss, which is important for those who need to establish lifelong healthy habits.
While all of the meals offered by Nutrisystem are designed to comply with the USDA's recommendations for a nutritious diet, those who want to stick to a vegetarian diet can especially benefit from Nutrisystem. You can avoid all animal products and still lose weight with Nutrisystem, with over 90 vegetarian options. Many people fail at diets because their bodies crave snacks to maintain their blood sugar levels throughout the day.
Because Nutrisystem allows 6 meals a day, you can avoid a dip in your blood sugar that could lead to cravings. By eating smaller portions, you can eat more frequently and still reach your weight loss goals. Join our community to stay up-to-date with the latest reviews, recall notices, and brand recommendations.
To see why, sign up below! Be in the know Get trending consumer news and recalls. Thanks Keep an eye on your inbox, the lastest consumer news is on it's way! This review is featured by Nutrisystem. March 11, An active athlete 21 years a collegiate soccer referee , 13 years ago I contacted Parkinson's Disease.
March 12, Nutrisystem response. Hello Willis, Thank you so much for your review and sharing your story. March 9, Tomorrow is my last day on turbo take off. March 11, Nutrisystem response. Hello Lori, Thank you so much for your review. We will be sure to let his supervisor know what a great job he did on your phone call.
Hi Karen, Thanks so much for sharing your review with us today. Hope you have a great day! The Nutrisystem Consumer Experience Team. Page 1 Reviews 1 - Not sure how to choose? Thank you, you have successfully subscribed to our newsletter! Enjoy reading our tips and recommendations.
Let us know if you need any help! Hi Kari, We are sorry to hear that you are unable to eat our food and we apologize for the poor service you've received. We will be looking into this and reaching out soon -the Nutrisystem Consumer Experience Team.
How do I know I can trust these reviews about Nutrisystem? We require contact information to ensure our reviewers are real. We use intelligent software that helps us maintain the integrity of reviews. Our moderators read all reviews to verify quality and helpfulness. Hi JoAnn, We are happy to hear that your water bottle issue has been handled but are sad to hear that your husband is still having issues.
Hi Mary, We are sorry that the foods upset your stomach and that you were unaware of the auto-delivery nature of the program. Hi Darrylynn, Thank you for writing this review. Hi Mary, We are so sorry to hear about your poor experience with the delivery of your foods, the food itself, and the representative you dealt with.
Hi Ginny, We are sorry to hear about the spoiled and stale items you received. Hi Debra, We are sorry to hear that it took you so long to receive the information you needed for the program. Hi Tammy, We are sad to hear about the way you were treated when calling. Hi Nancy, We are sorry to hear the NuMi promotion fell off after placing the order. Hi Dennis, No cheese?! This is not okay! We will be reaching out with a resolution soon.
Hi Leeann, We are so sorry that you had such a poor experience. Hi Sohrab, Thank you for reaching out. Hi Gerald, Thank you for the feedback. Hi David, We sincerely apologize for your experience. Hi Michael, We apologize that your 2nd order took longer than expected to get to you. Thank you for the kind words for Sheila! We wish you best wishes on the program! Hi Suzanne, We are sorry that you had such a poor experience with us. Nutrisystem Company Information Social media: