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We found the following prices at GNC. Views Read Edit View history. Is this fault at your end or mine? Fear the Walking Dead. Ben Horowitz , the co-founder of venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz , wrote an article in criticizing the lean startup method for over-emphasizing "running lean" constantly cutting and reducing non-essential parts of the company to save time and money. First off, Primal Force Primal Lean ingredients are irvingia gabonensis, fucoxanthin, garcinia cambogia fruit and chromium. Alternative meal replacement shakes can also be created at home.

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There are many examples of lean tool implementation without sustained benefit, and these are often blamed on weak understanding of lean throughout the whole organization. Lean aims to enhance productivity by simplifying the operational structure enough to understand, perform and manage the work environment.

To achieve these three goals simultaneously, one of Toyota's mentoring methodologies loosely called Senpai and Kohai which is Japanese for senior and junior , can be used to foster lean thinking throughout the organizational structure from the ground up. The closest equivalent to Toyota's mentoring process is the concept of " Lean Sensei ," which encourages companies, organizations, and teams to seek third-party experts that can provide advice and coaching.

Most of the basic goals of lean manufacturing and waste reduction were derived from Benjamin Franklin through documented examples. Poor Richard's Almanack says of wasted time, "He that idly loses 5 s. A pin a-day is a groat a-year. Again Franklin's The Way to Wealth says the following about carrying unnecessary inventory. You expect they will be sold cheap, and, perhaps, they may [be bought] for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you.

Remember what Poor Richard says, 'Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries. The accumulation of waste and energy within the work environment was noticed by motion efficiency expert Frank Gilbreth , who witnessed the inefficient practices of masons who often bend over to gather bricks from the ground.

The introduction of a non-stooping scaffold, which delivered the bricks at waist level, allowed masons to work about three times as quickly, and with the least amount of effort. Frederick Winslow Taylor , the father of scientific management , introduced what are now called standardization and best practice deployment. In Principles of Scientific Management , , Taylor said: And whenever the new method is found to be markedly superior to the old, it should be adopted as the standard for the whole establishment.

Taylor also warned explicitly against cutting piece rates or, by implication, cutting wages or discharging workers when efficiency improvements reduce the need for raw labor: Shigeo Shingo , the best-known exponent of single minute exchange of die and error-proofing or poka-yoke, cites Principles of Scientific Management as his inspiration.

American industrialists recognized the threat of cheap offshore labor to American workers during the s, and explicitly stated the goal of what is now called lean manufacturing as a countermeasure.

Henry Towne, past President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers , wrote in the Foreword to Frederick Winslow Taylor's Shop Management , "We are justly proud of the high wage rates which prevail throughout our country, and jealous of any interference with them by the products of the cheaper labor of other countries. To maintain this condition, to strengthen our control of home markets, and, above all, to broaden our opportunities in foreign markets where we must compete with the products of other industrial nations, we should welcome and encourage every influence tending to increase the efficiency of our productive processes.

Henry Ford initially ignored the impact of waste accumulation while developing his mass assembly manufacturing system. Charles Buxton Going wrote in Ford, in My Life and Work , [11] provided a single-paragraph description that encompasses the entire concept of waste:. Poor arrangement of the workplace—a major focus of the modern kaizen—and doing a job inefficiently out of habit—are major forms of waste even in modern workplaces.

Ford also pointed out how easy it was to overlook material waste. A former employee, Harry Bennett, wrote:. In other words, Ford saw the rust and realized that the steel plant was not recovering all of the iron.

Ford's early success, however, was not sustainable. Womack and Daniel Jones pointed out in "Lean Thinking", what Ford accomplished represented the "special case" rather than a robust lean solution.

This was made clear by Ford's precipitous decline when the company was forced to finally introduce a follow-on to the Model T. Design for Manufacture DFM is a concept derived from Ford which emphasizes the importance of standardizing individual parts as well as eliminating redundant components in My Life and Work.

Decades later, the renowned Japanese quality guru, Genichi Taguchi , demonstrated that this "goal post" method of measuring was inadequate. He showed that "loss" in capabilities did not begin only after exceeding these tolerances, but increased as described by the Taguchi Loss Function at any condition exceeding the nominal condition. This became an important part of W. Edwards Deming 's quality movement of the s, later helping to develop improved understanding of key areas of focus such as cycle time variation in improving manufacturing quality and efficiencies in aerospace and other industries.

While Ford is renowned for his production line, it is often not recognized how much effort he put into removing the fitters' work to make the production line possible. Previous to the use, Ford's car's components were fitted and reshaped by a skilled engineer at the point of use, so that they would connect properly.

Toyota's development of ideas that later became lean may have started at the turn of the 20th century with Sakichi Toyoda , in a textile factory with looms that stopped themselves when a thread broke. This became the seed of autonomation and Jidoka. Toyota's journey with just-in-time JIT may have started back in when it moved from textiles to produce its first car. Kiichiro Toyoda , founder of Toyota Motor Corporation, directed the engine casting work and discovered many problems in their manufacturing.

He decided he must stop the repairing of poor quality by intense study of each stage of the process. In , when Toyota won its first truck contract with the Japanese government, his processes hit new problems and he developed the " Kaizen " improvement teams. Levels of demand in the Post War economy of Japan were low and the focus of mass production on lowest cost per item via economies of scale therefore had little application. Having visited and seen supermarkets in the USA, Taiichi Ohno recognised the scheduling of work should not be driven by sales or production targets but by actual sales.

Given the financial situation during this period, over-production had to be avoided and thus the notion of Pull build to order rather than target driven Push came to underpin production scheduling.

It was with Taiichi Ohno at Toyota that these themes came together. He built on the already existing internal schools of thought and spread their breadth and use into what has now become the Toyota Production System TPS. It is principally from the TPS which was widely referred to in the s as just-in-time manufacturing , but now including many other sources, that lean production is developing. Norman Bodek wrote the following in his foreword to a reprint of Ford's Today and Tomorrow: I was first introduced to the concepts of just-in-time JIT and the Toyota production system in Subsequently I had the opportunity to witness its actual application at Toyota on one of our numerous Japanese study missions.

There I met Mr. Taiichi Ohno, the system's creator. When bombarded with questions from our group on what inspired his thinking, he just laughed and said he learned it all from Henry Ford's book. Although the elimination of waste may seem like a simple and clear subject, it is noticeable that waste is often very conservatively identified. This then hugely reduces the potential of such an aim. The elimination of waste is the goal of lean, and Toyota defined three broad types of waste: To illustrate the state of this thinking Shigeo Shingo observed that only the last turn of a bolt tightens it—the rest is just movement.

This ever finer clarification of waste is key to establishing distinctions between value-adding activity, waste and non-value-adding work. One key is to measure, or estimate, the size of these wastes, to demonstrate the effect of the changes achieved and therefore the movement toward the goal.

The "flow" or smoothness based approach aims to achieve JIT, by removing the variation caused by work scheduling and thereby provide a driver, rationale or target and priorities for implementation, using a variety of techniques.

The effort to achieve JIT exposes many quality problems that are hidden by buffer stocks; by forcing smooth flow of only value-adding steps, these problems become visible and must be dealt with explicitly. Muri is all the unreasonable work that management imposes on workers and machines because of poor organization, such as carrying heavy weights, moving things around, dangerous tasks, even working significantly faster than usual.

It is pushing a person or a machine beyond its natural limits. This may simply be asking a greater level of performance from a process than it can handle without taking shortcuts and informally modifying decision criteria. Unreasonable work is almost always a cause of multiple variations. To link these three concepts is simple in TPS and thus lean. Firstly, muri focuses on the preparation and planning of the process, or what work can be avoided proactively by design.

Next, mura then focuses on how the work design is implemented and the elimination of fluctuation at the scheduling or operations level, such as quality and volume. Muda is then discovered after the process is in place and is dealt with reactively. It is seen through variation in output. It is the role of management to examine the muda , in the processes and eliminate the deeper causes by considering the connections to the muri and mura of the system.

The muda and mura inconsistencies must be fed back to the muri , or planning, stage for the next project. A typical example of the interplay of these wastes is the corporate behaviour of "making the numbers" as the end of a reporting period approaches.

Demand is raised to 'make plan,' increasing mura , when the "numbers" are low, which causes production to try to squeeze extra capacity from the process, which causes routines and standards to be modified or stretched. This stretch and improvisation leads to muri -style waste, which leads to downtime, mistakes and back flows, and waiting, thus the muda of waiting, correction and movement.

The original seven mudas are: Eventually, an eighth "muda" was defined by Womack et al. Many others have added the "waste of unused human talent" to the original seven wastes.

For example, Six Sigma includes the waste of Skills, referred to as "under-utilizing capabilities and delegating tasks with inadequate training". Other additional wastes added were for example "space". These wastes were not originally a part of the seven deadly wastes defined by Taiichi Ohno in TPS, but were found to be useful additions in practice.

In Geoffrey Mika in his book, "Kaizen Event Implementation Manual" added three more forms of waste that are now universally accepted; The waste associated with working to the wrong metrics or no metrics, the waste associated with not utilizing a complete worker by not allowing them to contribute ideas and suggestions and be part of Participative Management, and lastly the waste attributable to improper use of computers; not having the proper software, training on use and time spent surfing, playing games or just wasting time.

For a complete listing of the "old" and "new" wastes see Bicheno and Holweg [17]. The identification of non-value-adding work, as distinct from wasted work, is critical to identifying the assumptions behind the current work process and to challenging them in due course. The role of the leaders within the organization is the fundamental element of sustaining the progress of lean thinking.

Experienced kaizen members at Toyota, for example, often bring up the concepts of Senpai , Kohai , and Sensei , because they strongly feel that transferring of Toyota culture down and across Toyota can only happen when more experienced Toyota Sensei continuously coach and guide the less experienced lean champions.

One of the dislocative effects of lean is in the area of key performance indicators KPI. This can be an issue where, for example a truly lean, Fixed Repeating Schedule FRS and JIT approach is adopted, because these KPIs will no longer reflect performance, as the assumptions on which they are based become invalid.

It is a key leadership challenge to manage the impact of this KPI chaos within the organization. Similarly, commonly used accounting systems developed to support mass production are no longer appropriate for companies pursuing lean.

Lean accounting provides truly lean approaches to business management and financial reporting. After formulating the guiding principles of its lean manufacturing approach in the Toyota Production System TPS , Toyota formalized in the basis of its lean management: These core management principles are articulated around the twin pillars of Continuous Improvement relentless elimination of waste and Respect for People engagement in long term relationships based on continuous improvement and mutual trust.

This formalization stems from problem solving. As Toyota expanded beyond its home base for the past 20 years, it hit the same problems in getting TPS properly applied that other western companies have had in copying TPS. Like any other problem, it has been working on trying a series of countermeasures to solve this particular concern. These countermeasures have focused on culture: Without the proper behavioral principles and values, TPS can be totally misapplied and fail to deliver results.

As with TPS, the values had originally been passed down in a master-disciple manner, from boss to subordinate, without any written statement on the way. Just as with TPS, it was internally argued that formalizing the values would stifle them and lead to further misunderstanding. However, as Toyota veterans eventually wrote down the basic principles of TPS, Toyota set to put the Toyota Way into writing to educate new joiners. Respect For People is less known outside of Toyota, and essentially involves two defining principles:.

While lean is seen by many as a generalization of the Toyota Production System into other industries and contexts, there are some acknowledged differences that seem to have developed in implementation: Lean principles have been successfully applied to various sectors and services, such as call centers and healthcare.

In the former, lean's waste reduction practices have been used to reduce handle time, within and between agent variation, accent barriers, as well as attain near perfect process adherence. Lean principles also have applications to software development and maintenance as well as other sectors of information technology IT. The challenge in moving lean to services is the lack of widely available reference implementations to allow people to see how directly applying lean manufacturing tools and practices can work and the impact it does have.

This makes it more difficult to build the level of belief seen as necessary for strong implementation. However, some research does relate widely recognized examples of success in retail and even airlines to the underlying principles of lean. The upshot of this is that each implementation often 'feels its way' along as must the early industrial engineering practices of Toyota. This places huge importance upon sponsorship to encourage and protect these experimental developments.

Lean management is nowadays implemented also in non-manufacturing processes and administrative processes. In non-manufacturing processes is still huge potential for optimization and efficiency increase.

The espoused goals of lean manufacturing systems differ between various authors. While some maintain an internal focus, e. Some commonly mentioned goals are: The strategic elements of lean can be quite complex, and comprise multiple elements. Four different notions of lean have been identified: Lean production has been adopted into other industries to promote productivity and efficiency in an ever changing market.

In global supply chain and outsource scale, Information Technology is necessary and can deal with most of hard lean practices to synchronise pull system in supply chains and value system.

The manufacturing industry can renew and change strategy of production just in time. For instance, Dell sells computers directly from their website, cutting franchised dealers out of their supply chains. Then, the firm use outsourced partners to produce its components, deliver components to their assembly plants on these main markets around the world, like America and China.

Zara made decision of speeding their fashion to the consumers market by fast-producing cloths within five weeks with their local partners in Spain and never involved in mass production to pursue new styles and keep products fresh. The other way to avoid market risk and control the supply efficiently is to cut down in stock. With the improvement of global scale supply chains, firms apply lean practices JIT, supplier partnership, and customer involvement built between global firms and suppliers intensively to connect with consumers markets efficiently.

James Womack had warned Toyota that cooperating with single outsourced suppliers might bring unexpected problems. That is proven as the economy of scale becomes global, the soft-learn practices become more important in their outsourced suppliers, if they could keep good Sensei relationship with their partners and constantly modify production process to perfection.

One thing I like about this book over many others is that Rother goes beyond just describing an ideal environment. In Chapter 9 Developing Improvement Kata Behavior in Your Organization he openly discusses the very real barriers that an organization must surmount to get this thinking and practice into place. He is, of course, talking about a fundamental change in culture. This is true of a national or ethnic culture as much as a corporate culture.

The coaching kata describes a specific way that people interact with one another when solving a problem. Therefore, this is not something that can be taught to individuals. Rother is clear about a couple of things. First is that nobody has succeeded in doing this as well as Toyota yet. We are cutting new ground here. There is no clear path to the end state.

There is a clear vision for what the end state looks like, and each of us should know or be able to assess the current state in our individual organizations. If this sounds familiar, it is. Rother is describing a process of using the very principles discussed in the book to put these patterns into place. Because when the practices are applied correctly, they work. Continuous and conscious practice with the oversight of a coach.

Every world-class athlete in the world has a coach. Only the coach can observe her performance objectively and see what must be adjusted to improve it. I always wonder why it is that, in business or operations, we believe that once some level is reached there is no need for this. This is, of course, silly. Rother proposes to start at the top with the basics — not because they end up as the primary coaches. No, that is primarily the domain of the middle managers and below. But because someone has to coach those middle managers , and it has to come from above.

I would add that starting in the middle puts those people in an untenable position because they are being taught to behave in ways that their bosses do not understand. Getting the top level team not only involved, but embedded, in the process is a countermeasure. I am not going to go into a lot of detail and spoil the book. Get it and read it. Form your own view on this. Just understand that getting this thinking into place is a big deal. Like every book before it, Toyota Kata is targeted primarily at senior leaders.

Like most books of these books, its primary readers are going to be technical practitioners. Those technical practitioners are the ones leading the classroom training, leading the kaizen workshops or black belt projects.

They are the ones who are doing most of the things that do not work. Odds are you are one of those people if you are reading this blog, and odds are you are the only one who will be reading this book. First, practice this stuff on your own. It will feel awkward. Get as good at this as you can.

Then start altering how you run your events. Shift them to changing the behavior of team leaders and supervisors. Teach them to see, clear, and solve problems quickly. Set more clear target objectives. Hold yourself to a higher bar. At the end of an event, where you have traditionally focused on clearing newspaper action items, focus instead on ensuring that this behavior is embedded. Coach and support those front line leaders until they are habitually employing the kata every single day.

That is the only way your results will sustain. The leadership above is going to say and do things that introduce problems. You have to intervene, but use it as a coaching opportunity. Apply the kata, just like you would for any other issue. Now, though, you are coaching those leaders — gently — through the process of understanding what is really happening, what they truly want to achieve, and understanding what is truly in their way.

Maybe, just maybe a few of them will listen. And maybe you can lead them through a study of this book so they can begin to understand what you are doing. Just to be clear, Rother says that everything I have just said is the wrong way to go about this. It has to start from the top. Perhaps he is right. But sometimes you do what you can, where you can. In the end , these concepts have to overcome huge momentum. Our business leaders today are firmly entrenched in a management paradigm that was developed, ironically, in General Motors.

It is taught by every major business school in the world. Now we are beginning to see that there is a better way. But the better way is very different from anything they understand, and it is a lot of work. Thus — this is a great book. Do what it says. There is still a lot of work we have to do ourselves. I am in middle of this book right now and it has both changed and verified my understanding of lean and lean tools.

This is just too good. We have been struggling with our lean efforts because we are not getting the results we want. And then I read this: I keep thinking that this lean manufacturing stuff is difficult. However, you and Rother have the gift to make it simpler. At the very least you shine the light down the tunnel so we can more clearly see our way. This is your best post yet. You have really nailed a number of insights about Toyota, improvement, and the deep changes required to even suppose one can emulate Toyota.

My key client gained a lot of value out of reading this, even though his lean journey only started recently. I think that the extract that you quote on pages about the negative comment made by the assembly manager that are supported by the plant manager was handled wrongly. The Manager should have understood the reasons for his beliefs. If the man draws on his experience to support the current method, that is consistent. His views should be respected and the new direction must be realigned by educating him in the new method.

Toyota do not move forward by adopting systems that thier people do not understand. I believe that they keep people as individuals so they do not resist with the strenght of a collective but they do train them well in what they are doing. Part of their strength comes from not allowing trade unions in their plants. Hence there is no collective resistance to their systems. Unfortunately GM decided to pull out of the JV and left Toyota holding the bag it was a GM plant, ultimately , but that does not change the success they had there in one of the toughest union environments.

Of course you are correct that the concepts of one-by-one, etc, are so embedded in the Toyota culture that there is no need to make the case. Rother points out, elsewhere in the book, that cost justifications are not used to decide whether to make an improvement, but rather, to evaluate which countermeasure is acceptable.

So the journey toward one-by-one is not without its barriers, but the focus is on how to break down the barriers rather than whether or not to proceed. Your post provided insight and was a great follow up after I finished the book.

My current understanding of target condition is a measurable target which, when missed, provides immediate feedback. If process cycles vary with each product, what might be a way to produce a target condition? Currently, I am assessing current state standing in a circle hoping I will understand this with time. I think that shows that the UAW won the first battle but lost the war. When the gates closed. You ask what are the people resisting. When you totally embrace LEAN and remove all of the waste, people work physically for a larger portion of their allocation.

It is not hard to see why people resist the change. Work smarter not harder is often quoted. This is why you need both side to buy into the change. It is a cop out to say that you will do this because I say so this is and there is a recession on the rules have all changed. The people that are leading the company and wanting the changes are the same people that chose and administered the current defunct systems.

When you ask people to change then you must be prepared to change yourself and that may mean giving them more information than you have in the past.

To most people the changes will mean them working harder so they have some skin in the process also the NEW systems may fail. The share holders will loose their investment but the workers would loose their jobs and all that goes with that loss. I totally believe in the rights of the share holders to get the best profit on their investment that is right and correct there would be no company if they did not put up their hard earned cash.

However in the new world we must all change and that is part of the reason why we read about plants where LEAN does not work. The management only want changes in the work force and are not prepared to put any changes into their own ways. Is this fault at your end or mine? I would not ask the leaders who are responsible for profit and loss to take the benefits of any program on blind faith. They have to understand how the total management system works to consistently deliver bottom line improvements, and why continuously driving toward the ideal of one-by-one, etc.

On the other hand, once a direction is adopted, it is counter-productive to have to debate the merits of that direction every time a step is taken. It was a General Motors plant with a long history.

After the joint venture was in place, it went from being the worst General Motors plant, that had actually already been closed, to being one of the best General Motors plants in terms of quality, productivity and financial return.

GM moved first on that one, and Toyota was left standing when the music stopped. Had Toyota pulled out earlier — by moving Tacoma production to Texas as soon as the markets started to waiver for example, then it would have been a GM issue alone as they ended production of Pontiac. I only brought up NUMMI because it is an example, especially prior to this recent recession, of the principles outlined in Toyota Kata being successfully applied in a union environment.

It is not the only one, only the most well known. Not personal, it is quite common, but it is neither a proper noun nor an acronym… fails more often than it succeeds in brownfield environments. You are also correct about the reasons why. That is reason I believe the book, Toyota Kata, is such an important contribution to the field. As you point out, the leaders are the ones who actually have the biggest changes to make.

This book is the clearest description so far about what, exactly, the leaders have to learn to do differently. The block quote that you originally objected to showed how a leader who had embraced that change the hypothetical Toyota manager would have responded. His response was not a rebuke, nor was it an admonishment, nor was he forcing the decision upon anyone. Excellent, thorough review of the book and subject. I will move Kata to the top of my reading list. This article spoke to me because it addressed the human side of lean, lean is a core value and it would be nice to bring in some Good to Great thinking to Lean and see what we come up with.

The result is that the team spots one gorilla every three days! I now realise that by persevering we have with a good sprinkilng of luck stumbled upon what I am calling problem solving kata the gorilla practice makes a habit and is being being achieved in a simple yet effective way, this may pave the way for a more serious approach to lean…or maybe not?

Mark- you always bring value to everyone who wants to learn more…. Great page and keep up with all of us. We all students in this journey.

You should consider a radio morning show about lean manufacturing. You definally have alot of material that we can listen. This was my first visit to your website — I am most pleased that my google search surrounding the psychology in implementing and sustaining lean has lead me to you. You obviously have a massive understand on lean, and just from reading this article i have furthered my own.

Behaviour is often the hardest thing to understand, change and nurture — Thanks for the great break down on the books core articles -I will be buying this book.. Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. I found it validating. Rother turns up the contrast on a couple of crucial points and I liked that.

History The Toyota Production System was never designed. That was 11 years ago. Kata The term kata is found mostly in the study of Asian martial arts. A kata for improvement or problem solving. A kata for coaching.

The role of vision and direction in continuous improvement. The problem solving kata, and how it differs from what most of us do. The coaching kata, really describing how management engages. A proposal for teaching the problem solving and coaching kata to a management team. I would like to discuss these in detail, and offer my thoughts on each of them. Why is this important? A Toyota plant manager would likely say something like this to the assembly manager. In each case the questions are: Problem Solving Of course if the target could be achieved today, it is a poorly set target.

Typical Behavior Observe and study the situation. Apply only one countermeasure at a time in order to see cause and effect. Quickly move into countermeasures. Developing People Coaching Even in the rare organizations that have fantastic problem solving and kaizen skills, the development of people often a very weak process. Let me be specific about this, just to be clear.

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