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The plant typically grows to a height of 8 inches up to 16 inches in high light aquariums. Intravenous infusions of alpha-gal A are safe and have widespread therapeutic efficacy in Fabry disease. The authors tested the supporting effect of hydrolytic enzymes in plasmocytoma and immunocytoma. Natural treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when Morphine Sulfate Tablets are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs. It will also grow when floating freely.

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This plant does well in both cold and warm water and is excellent for livebearers. Caution should be used when planting Anacharis in a tank with goldfish as they often will nibble at it. Under optimum conditions, this plant will grow rapidly and add a good deal of oxygen during the hours of photosynthesis.

Amazon Swords require medium to high lighting and rich substrates such as SeaChem Flourite because they can only get nutrients through their roots. These plants are relatively hardy and take root easily once they adjust to the new tank.

Amazon Swords can be potted like house plants, in an aquarium and in aquarium gravel, as both ways work very well. They have large root systems that can overwhelm other aquarium plants.

The plant typically grows to a height of 8 inches up to 16 inches in high light aquariums. Use of products such as Flourish Root Tabs, other similar root tabs, is an easy and reliable way to provide a healthy substrate with proper nutrients root feeders like Sagittaria and Amazon swords. These plants originate from South America and the Eastern U.

These are usually sold as bulbs as these are true lilys. Leaf color varies from green, to brown, to shades of red which can add a pop of color to a planted tank. The growth of these plants parallels Banana Plants which is another type of Dwarf Lily. If not, you will end up with a large green common lily that looks more appropriate in a pond than an aquarium.

They will usually eat them faster than they can grow. These are excellent beginner plants that only require low light, tolerate soft to very hard water, and very wide pH range 6. The Red Ludwgia is one of the easier red plants to grow in the aquarium, being able to grow in moderate light conditions and with little added CO2. These too are excellent beginner plants with a fast growth rate with reasonable care. These plants also tolerate a pH range 6.

Banana Plants require moderate to high lighting with no special substrate requirements. It is usually an easy plant to take care of and grow. Banana Plants adapt to most water conditions. Banana Plants send leaves up approximately cm high every 4 to 5 days.

It will also grow replica plants. Rotala macrandra requires strong light, soft water pH , CO2, and pruning to thrive and look its best in aquariums. Without CO2 these plants will tend to send thin stems to the surface and never really fill out. Rotala indica; Indian toothcup. Many have had success with this plant in regular gravel. Crypt lutea may go through a period of die-off when first planted, but it recovers after a couple of weeks.

This plant spreads its roots very far, so if you remove it, be careful to not pull it too hard or you may destroy the root structure. As noted earlier, transplantations and fertilization are the more difficult aspect of this plant. Any terrestrial plant adapted to aquariums plants that can't be grown submersed indefinitely such as Mondo Grass, Purple Waffle, Aluminum Plant or Peace Lilies. I will make the exception that the above plants make excellent bog plants when the roots are kept under water absorbing nutrients for better tank health while the leaves are out of the water.

With this in mind, all of these above mentioned plants are better used in a vivarium where the leaves are above water rather than fully submerged in the aquarium. Other plants I do not recommend are Cabomba as these non-tropical plants have high light requirements and tend to be difficult in warm aquarium environments which often results in this plant breaking apart and causing a mess. Please note, so as to provide as a quick of shipping as possible, most orders will go out on the following Monday or Tuesday after order is placed.

Small plants with great success. Are very young plants cultivated and delivered directly from our laboratory. The plants are guaranteed to be free from snails, algae and pesticides and therefore are totally harmless for sensitive shrimp and fish. The range offers unique plants! Success with your aquarium depends largely on the proper plant choice. Plants are compact from the start so you will experience a dense and beautiful growth, if you give them the right fertilizer and CO2 from the start!

The range is perfect for small and medium sized aquariums, and your patience will be rewarded. Carefully take the plant out of the cup and rinse off the growing media under the tap, Split the plant in portions using your fingers or sharp scissors for small foreground plants. Plant portions into the substrate using tweezers. Then watch them grow! Another place to purchase: AquaticMag Aquarium Plants Lighting that does not allow plants to compete with algae is a factor, as well.

In fact often improving your light source will make all the difference. UV Sterilizer Dwell Time. Shipping and Return Policy Fedex-Ground. How aquarium lighting works - best lights, PAR and more A little background on this article: Ecology of the Planted Aquarium by Diana Walstad What was NOT desired by the majority of my clients were the high tech methods that are more time consuming and more expensive if only for the cost of your time in maintaining these types of tanks.

For healthy plants you will need: Aquarium Bio Load Back to Filters: Please reference these articles: Our Controlled Tests Water Circulation is closely related to the filtration of your planted aquarium. Suggestions for Lighting your Planted Freshwater Aquarium: See Picture Below Product Source: Basically, if you are looking for the lowest start-up cost to provide light for planted aquarium, then CFLs are the way to go.

Because of their widespread use, it's very inexpensive to find or make fixtures to provide light for your aquarium. Or, if you have more money to spend up-front and are prioritizing efficiency and savings over the long run, you will be better suited with LEDs.

A long lifespan and low energy usage along with less heat emitted make LEDs a great choice. As you can imagine, the "ground" in your planted aquarium is very important. Plants need something to hold them down and dig their roots through. This is provided by a good sandy base and careful cleaning so as to not disturb this.

In fact, many planted aquarium keepers advise minimal use of gravel vacuums so that plants can pull nutrients from fish wastes and extra fish food.

Of course, much of this depends on how heavily planted your tank is. In any case, the roots of the plants dig through the substrate for their food, breaking down fish waste and rotting food. The roots are supported by symbiotic bacteria that aid in nitrate assimilation and other processes. For healthy plants I would suggest any of the following: Or simply mix with 0 sized sand. This combination works well for plant roots, ease of vacuuming the top layer ONLY, and for better bio filtration.

This also helps "hold down" these plant substrates, especially ADA Aquasoil which will tend to get very fine and dusty with time. The total depth of sand, plant substrate or any combination thereof should be about inches for most rooted aquarium plants. One disagreement I have with the manufacturers of these products is in the amount needed.

I have found that just enough of the Flourite, Onyx, etc. What I have found is this keeps bacteria often found in substrate such as Aeromonas and Pseuodomonas from coming in contact with fish as easily, especially bottom dwellers. I have also found this lowers Hydro Sulfide Production. Another simple reason for this method is cost savings; why spend extra money on copious amounts of Flourite, EcoComplete when there is no benefit and in fact I have found better results with the before noted blend??

Gather aged compost mixed with a sandy top soil although not good a source of iron, adding a nail or similar to this compost as it ages can add some iron. Next, add water and then rinse and strain to remove large debris until the water runs relatively clear do not over rinse or you remove nutrients. I then will let it sit in the open for a few days. However, this will not affect mineral nutrients. The sand that is left is what you mix with your plant roots. Another substrate suggestion is Seachem Onyx Sand.

This product is carbonate rich with high amounts of calcium and magnesium and is particularly suited for plants that prefer large amounts of these minerals such as Anubias or in tanks that are supplied by a water source that is very mineral poor. The use of Wonder Shells and buffers can help as well. Please be careful when vacuuming with many plant substrates as it is easy to suck the lighter grains up into vacuums and many will mistake these often lighter than gravel substrates as waste, this is especially common with inexperienced aquarium keepers.

Sadly, many of these inexperienced aquarium keepers make statements at Yahoo Answers or YouTube that this substrate represents a "dirty" aquarium often confusing others that do not know better. Not all substrates are light but many are. So, extreme care should be exercised with these light substrates. You may want to try "kinking" the tubing from the vacuum bell to lower the sucking power or simply avoid areas of plant substrates.

Reasons and Methods for Water Changes" Other sands for use as a substrate for planted freshwater aquariums: There is a lot of mis-information both pro and con as to the use of these sands for planted aquariums. To start with, these sands are primarily silica sand with play sand being more dusty. Some have stated that silica sand is unsafe for use in either freshwater or saltwater.

However, nothing is further from the truth as silica sand is The fact is that your aquarium glass is made primarily made from this ingredient and would also be dangerous to your fish if this were true.

Some advocates of using these sands state that they provide nutrients necessary for plant roots. This is definitely not true and is NOT a reason to use pool sand or play sand. Sand is inert and plants cannot absorb nutrients from the grains!

This is why you use sand as a cap over a substrate such as Flourite or EcoComplete that is capable of absorbing and releasing nutrients for plants.

Please reference this article for further information: The advantages of this product are that it is inexpensive, it looks nice since it is primarily rock , and it is simple to use with many nutrients already added. The disadvantage that is the amount of nutrients in this substrate is lower than the use of the aforementioned plant grower substrates.

Transplantation is an important consideration in keeping healthy aquarium plants. Plants, in this regard, are similar to fish, and need time to acclimate. Extreme shock and sterile gravel are going to play havoc during the initial transplant in to the new aquarium. This shock can last a long period of time this varies by plant, water environment, and transplant method , after this period the plant will eventually start to grow new leaves and begin to grow.

I personally do not care for the yeast based CO2 system as they are often no more effective than the Fizz Tabs or especially CO2 canister systems with a lot more hassles. For a more advanced system with a reactor and diffuser, a pressurized CO2 is the next step up. Then, use SeaChem Acid Buffer which utilizes proprietary bisulfate salts which are superior to methods that utilize phosphates to immediately stabilize pH, counteract the KH Buffers, and produce CO2 as part of the chemical reaction.

If ample acid buffers exist, often just the addition of an alkaline KH buffer will react with the acid buffer and produce CO2. Below is a description of the production of CO2 when sodium carbonates KH buffer are combined with sodium bisulfate to produce CO2: Often the chemical reaction shown above is naturally occurring in planted aquariums with little intervention by the hobbyist.

The result renders the use of CO2 generators or products such as Flourish Excel unnecessary. Generally I use a quart of water with varying amounts of Excel and ferts depending on the aquarium size and plant demands. It is noteworthy that the best description of how Flourish Excel works is by limiting algae growth on plant leaves, allowing the uptake of carbon naturally produced in a healthy aquarium that would otherwise be used by the algae growing on these leaves. These can still be set to go on at night by using a timer when plants use oxygen, not CO2.

Keep in mind that circulation is still necessary just watch the surface agitation where CO2 is exchanged for oxygen. Simply blasting horizontally will not keep CO2 in the aquarium any more than a vertical current of air will keep a hot air balloon from rising.

Be careful of organic buildup that can deplete CO2 via nitrification. Thorough and regular water changes are a must for more reasons than this alone.

For this reason the use of sponge filters or better yet, fluidized sand filters, or both is advised in planted aquariums utilizing additional CO2. If the light is very intense and there isn't a corresponding larger amount of CO2, the light can harm your aquarium plants. Without enough CO2, plants engage in biogenic decalcification that leave deposits of limescale on their leaves. I have kept MANY high light aquariums without adding CO2, however CO2 was added naturally and was not scrubbed off with too much surface agitation, and as well, superior planted aquarium filtration such as FSB Filters were employed.

I also am not advocating to not add CO2 to balance out your strong lighting, simply to know where your aquarium is as per CO2, in part by simply observing your plant health. Also to be wary of many forums that will state as a matter of fact that strong lighting equals that you must have a CO2 system!!!

A balanced tank will generally have more plants than fish. Further Biogenic Decalcification Information: Biogenic decalcification is also problem in systems with high carbonate hardness where there is insufficient CO2 in solution. Adding peat moss, pillow moss or almond leaves can help with this aspect of biogenic decalcification. It will also cut back but not eliminate sources of minerals such as ferts or Wonder Shells. They tend to live in crowded conditions where there is not much flow-through of water, and, in good light, they can raise the pH to They often precipitate calcium carbonate on their leaves.

Effect of Aeration air stones etc. In a tank with CO2 injection or added another way, you are artificially raising the natural levels. The only thing keeping it there is the relatively low gas exchange surface. When you agitate, you increase that gas exchange surface and so it will "off gas" to lower itself back to equilibrium. This said, even when I inject, I will have surface movement with a circulation pump such as durable Seio pump pointed towards the surface along with another pump aimed down as noted earlier.

This may wear off some CO2, but O2 is very important for fish and Redox balance and this agitation also brings in things like Nitrogen. CO2 Timing The other problem is since plants themselves use oxygen at night once they stop photosynthesizing, NOT CO2, this can be deadly to fish when plant photosynthesis ceases.

This is especially important if your aquarium has a CO2 system that continues to add CO2 at night which can be poisonous to fish as the plants will not use this CO2.

So, any additional CO2 in the tank will be useless to the plants until mornings. Worse, not only are you wasting CO2 but you may find either dead or suffocating fish. If you see them gasping at the surface, this is a definite sign you need to agitate the surface of the water immediately. So, here are a few suggestions: Whether or not you add CO2 to your tank, in heavily planted aquariums the addition of a timer for the control of an air pump running one or more air stones that is set to turn on when the lights go out can help greatly with this problem.

I would NOT recommend placing a filter on a timer as this can cause the destruction of nitrifying bacterial colonies. For high end CO2 units, these too should be set to no longer add bubbles of CO2 to your aquarium after your lights go out. For the high end DIY CO2 system pictured below, I would either physically turn of the CO2 at night or purchase a valve similar to those used in irrigation that closes the valve on the CO2 canister using a timer.

With high end systems combined with high end lights such as SHO Super High Output or GroBeam LED lights see earlier in the lighting section , I recommend running half the lights for 12 hours and the other half for hours. At the same time, set your pressure valve to diffuse some CO2 after the first lights turn on and then open further after all lights are operating the amount of CO2 required will need to be determined by testing through trial and error.

Or, if using the bubble method, the air pump used here can also be on a timer. Yeast based CO2 systems are more difficult to regulate in my experience. Depending, on your yeast-based system, adding yeast or tablets such as the Jungle system early in the day should allow for enough time for CO2 generation to cease by late in the day. Entry-level planted aquarium CO2 systems include: For newbies and even some advanced aquatic plant hobbyists I find the Sanders Floramat CO2 Generator to be the most foolproof although currently unavailable due to aerosol shipping restrictions in the USA.

CO2 generators can greatly improve your planted aquarium's growth and overall plant health. Yet, I do not want beginners to feel that these are a must. As with many devices in aquarium keeping, such as UV sterilizers or protein skimmers these are useful tools.

There are, of course, many discussions about just how useful they are. I have no problem with that. What is frustrating to me is the amount of misinformation on both sides of the argument. Some plants such as Rotala macrandra are nearly impossible to grow without added CO2. Another advantage of CO2 units of any type is that they will help with weaknesses in other areas of plant care such as low organic carbon and other nutrient availability.

The bottom line is, these can be very useful, but they are not essential in all planted aquarium applications such as some Amazon Biotopes. If you are a beginner and these devices seem overwhelming, try products such as NilocG Enhance or Flourish Excel and follow some of the tips earlier in this article as to raising CO2. However, for really serious planted aquarium keepers, the CO2 reactor systems many better systems can be DIY are hard to beat.

It is possible to diffuse too much CO2 into your aquarium which can be dangerous to your fish. Levels over 30 ppm should be avoided! This, of course, is the subject of an ongoing debate. Here is an outside article discussing optimal CO2 levels: Please note that the presence of ANY phosphates will make this calculation fail.

Another way to test CO2 is with CO2 test kits as well as droppers discussed below. Here are the recommended levels for a planted aquarium with different KH levels. For a better understand of why this is the case, please read the following articles: Use a soda or water bottle and add an air line with control valve. Then, turn the bottle upside down and you can regulate the speed of the drip into your aquarium.

Next, figure out your weekly dosage of nutrients and mix it with distilled mixed water that goes inside the bottle. By adjusting the control valve, you can get a slow drip of nutrients into your aquarium. Generally I use a quart of water with the variable being higher amounts of Excel and ferts in this mix as per the aquarium size and plant demands.

As an example, for a 60 gallon aquarium using regular Flourish and Flourish Excel, I would mix 5 ml of Flourish and 40 ml of Flourish Excel to this quart of water.

Then, I establish a drip rate for one week. Generally, establishing the drip rate is the most difficult aspect of this method. I usually experiment with 4 to 5 ounces of plain water one day's worth until I get it to about where it is empty in a single day. I personally think this dosing system works as well as any other system and, since it isn't very costly, it's at least worth giving a try.

Click below for a much more in-depth article: What ingredients are needed for proper fish nutrition Product Resources: Guaranteed live arrival with picture provided if otherwise Further Information: Tropica Plants Information Another place to purchase: Algae control in a tank is often most simply accomplished by having plants out compete the algae for nutrients.

One way to control algae is to add CO2 or bio-available carbon. This will often retard many unwanted algae growth. But, if you stop adding CO2, or carbon, and find the algae quickly grows out of control, then it is likely an indication that there are other problems contributing to this including: Here is a list of important nutrients listed in recommended added solution, not ppm, as stated earlier in the article: Here are a few sources: Many can be mixed as you find your own success.

Much has been published lately about the addition of PO4 phosphates to control algae. However, I believe this is only partially correct and based on some false assumptions. Phosphates PO4 along with nitrate NO3 and potassium are important macronutrients that need to be in balance.

I have found that simply changing water will control algae by adding many of these macronutrients assuming proper mineralization of new water. What is happening is that the algae are much better equipped than higher plants to compete in conditions of low nutrients. The addition of these nutrients allows the plants to better compete for more of the nutrients. Adding only PO4 does not bring these macronutrients into balance.

Even though many claim this solved their problem, they have not run a control group to see if this was only part of the equation. There may have been other variables that controlled the algae. Poor substrate for healthy plant growth only certain plants! Make sure your substrate is rich in iron Fe. Iron is the most important trace element.

Your tank substrate should contain a reasonable amount of iron. Liquid iron will, if overdosed, favor hair algae. It can be added through tablets, iron rich fertilizers, and through substrates like Eco Complete, Laterite and Fluorite. I use excel a couple times a week. Usually it is standard dosing but if an algae problem should arise I will on occasionally double or triple dose once.

Too much actinic light can encourage the growth of BBA algae over plant growth. It is worth noting that strong blue light will cause plant growth to be more compact and bushy, and will also tend to promote algae growth. I do not agree with the method of darkening a tank for a few days because plants often have higher light requirements than algae in part due to their complexity.

This only gives the algae more time to out compete plants because the dark will hurt the plants more than the algae! Nitrates should be above 15 ppm for plants, but not above 40 ppm as I have seen in many aquariums with excessive algae growth.

Truthfully, though, high nitrates are rarely a problem in tanks with healthy plant growth. If nitrates are too low, plants will starve for this important macronutrient. Often increasing the frequency even to twice per week will improve conditions in the aquarium so as to allow plants to out compete algae. In part, this improves the macronutrient balance, as discussed above, as well as improvements in redox and lowering DOC.

I, however, do not recommend increasing the amount of water you change per cleaning. This is much like pruning in your garden. This forces plants to generate new and healthy leaves that will often do better at competing against the algae. Also, Nerite snails are excellent for many types of algae, including brown algae. Finally, Oto catfish a. Otocinclus and many different algae-eating fish, such as Bristlenose Plecostomus are excellent for some types of algae. See the section further below in this article about algae-eaters.

Dip your new or even established plants - although this will cause a temporary shock to established plants in Seachem Flourish Excel.

This product can be used as a quick dip solution about 30 seconds for plants to kill algae. I recommend diluting the Excel with about 5 parts water to 1 part Flourish Excel. Be warned, though, I have not established an exact dilution as of yet. So, any feedback from readers is appreciated. Also, the dosing of Flourish Excel in your aquarium can be effective at algae control. Flourish Excel contains a polymerized isomer of glutaraldehyde trademarked as "polycycloglutaracetal" by Seachem.

This is the active ingredient in this product and it is a fertilizer for aquatic plants. It is claimed that Excel provides a bioavailable source of carbon for higher plants that is not available to algae. Though not marketed as such due to federal regulations, the algaecidal effect of glutaraldehyde kills most algae at concentrations of 0.

This can be especially effective for the control of BBA black beard algae and cyanobacteria. If you want to add it directly to the tank, my recommended dosage of 2 oz. However , this is best done without shrimp such as Cherry shrimp present, as this may kill them. Also, many fish are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, such as Cory and Oto catfish. Besides fish, Corkscrew Vallisneria are sensitive to peroxide and will be killed if dipped in it.

For plant baths, I would recommend about 4 oz. For a 30 second dip, use about a 5 to 1 solution of hydrogen peroxide applied by basting the plants with the solution. This solution can be increased if results are not satisfactory. Please see these outside articles for more about the use of hydrogen peroxide as an algaecide: Although not as effective for killing algae, it is also much less harsh on certain plants, and, for that matter fish too.

You may find that the simple methods I have outlined here are enough to control your algae. Or, if you need more information, you will find it in this article: Also the addition of UV sterilization will improve the Redox Balance as well by affecting the electromagnetism of the water, as killing free-floating algae.

See below for more information. As stated above, many good aquatic husbandry methods will aid in combating this algae. Physically removing rocks and wood that have these algae on it and scrubbing the algae off will also give plants a better chance of utilizing nutrients and overcoming these algae. The use of Seachem Flourish Excel link above has, for some hobbyists, been shown to be effective in control of this algae.

The reason behind this is that the Flourish Excel formula is aldehyde-based. This, admittedly, is only a theory at this point.

However, I have observed vastly better algae control in all sorts of algae in ponds where the redox is stable. However from my experience, with ponds in particular, it is often a war that cannot be totally won. It, can, though, be checked by keeping nutrients away from algae such as substrate nutrients while providing them to plants.

You should also understand that algae are more simple life forms than plants and have less complicated needs. So, addressing the more complex needs of higher plants will allow them to outcompete the algae.

Sometimes this is as simple as the removal of as much algae as possible to give the plants a foot hold. Admittedly,this can also be easier said than done. For further reading on the topic of algae , please see this Aquarium Answers article post: The Red Cherry Shrimp is popular in the aquarium hobby.

Picture is of a "berried" female carrying eggs. This is one of the better fresh water algae-eating shrimps. Red Cherry Shrimp are fairly easy to care for. As with most shrimp, they are very sensitive to ammonia and nitrite, so it is of great importance that the aquarium they are in has been established and cycled for a while.

Most pH ranges suitable for aquarium fish will also work well for the Red Cherry Shrimp. For more Cherry Shrimp information, I recommend reading this article: Oto catfish tolerate a wide pH range of 5.

Otos grow to 1. Otos will eat most kinds of algae, especially green and brown diatoms. If you do not have algae in your tank, you must supplement their diet with algae wafers or, for example, blanched vegetables cucumbers are said to work. Unfortunately, Otos frequently die within the first couple of weeks in the home aquarium.

Some speculate that it is because they are very fragile, but others think it may have more to do with the way they are caught in the wild. Most Otos in stores are wild-caught. Luckily, reports are that if your Oto makes it past the first couple of weeks, they will live for several years. This page has a video of Otocinclus catfish being caught in the wild: These fish are often hard on plants and are prone to uprooting them. Also some, like the common Plecostomus, can easily grow to 12 inches or longer.

Apple Snails Apple snails can live together with most fish species and they can be used to keep the aquarium clean of algae. Not all apple snail species are a good choice for aquaria, as their voracious appetite for aquatic vegetation will often result in your aquatic plants being decimated. A better choice for planted tanks: Nerite Snails Nerite snails are an easy snail to keep. I would recommend you keep them in water with a pH above 7.

A GH over ppm is best for these snails because these are snails that breed in marine or brackish water Wonder Shells are good for this. Even if these snails lay eggs in your freshwater tank, they will not hatch unless you provide brackish or marine water.

This keeps these snails from overpopulating your tank, a real problem with, for example, common pond snails. Nerite snails almost exclusively eat algae and do not seem to harm plants at all. They can clean up very heavy algae growths in a month or two. As noted in the "Overview" section of this article, plant care is not my aquarium specialty, but I still have kept many planted aquarium tanks for my clients over the years, primarily low to medium tech, but still many high tech as well.

My expertise is more in aquarium electrolytes, aquarium Redox, UV sterilization, filtration, fish diseases, and fish disease prevention. So when those in the hobby or planted aquarium forums poo-poo my experience in these fields as in my extensive Redox research to discredit me here, I would be wary.

This is an area of aquarium keeping along with reef keeping that has a lot of advice floating around that is based more on opinion than facts or true research. This is not to say that this article is the authority on the only way to keep plants, far from it! This is my point! There are many successful ways of keeping aquarium plants.

It can be equal parts art and science. A single dose of 6g citrulline malate 0. Interestingly, the aforementioned studies using 0. Citrulline has been noted to not influence serum levels of any of the branched chain amino acids at rest, [22] but can accelerate depletion of BCAAs induced by prolonged exercise via increasing their utilization as fuel. Other amino acids tested glutamic acid, aspartic acid, asparagine, alanine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, L-tyrosine , histidine are mostly unaffected.

Citrulline and beta-alanine have been found to be normally expressed at higher concentrations in the hippocampus of trained rats relative to untrained rats in a cognitive test. In heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction given 3g citrulline, pulmonary artery pressure appeared to be reduced Arginine was equally effective, but required a higher dose 8g , [33] and this study is duplicated in Medline.

In youth given a cold-pressor test known to increase blood pressure without affecting heart rate [37] [38] , and supplemental arginine has been previously shown to attenuate the rise seen in persons with high cholesterol. In youth with congenital heart disease having supplemental citrulline around an operation 5 doses of 1. The exercise-induced increase in insulin has been noted to be decreased with supplemental citrulline 3g taken three hours before exercise or 9g over the course of 24 hours.

Supplementation of citrulline has been noted to modulate enzymes in the glycogenolysis glycogen breakdown and glycolysis converting glucose into ATP pathways in rat skeletal muscle, which was said to shift muscle from aerobic energy metabolism fatty acid based to anaerobic. Elsewhere, citrulline as malate has been found to increase muscular ATP efficiency [46] which is a similar phenomena as is seen with nitrate supplementation [48] and arginine supplementation [49] due to nitric oxide.

Citrulline as malate is sometimes used as an acid and ammonia buffer in bacterial models [51] and in mammals including humans. Ammonia normally signals for muscle fatigue when it accumulates due to inhibiting the conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA via activating phosphofructokinase [55] [56] which hinders contractility of muscles. Although citrulline does not appear to be an activator of mTOR like leucine is mTOR activation, via S6K, induces muscle protein synthesis , citrulline does appear to restore muscle protein synthesis rates [59] [60] and muscular function following food restriction [61] and this positive effect on muscle protein synthesis is abolished by rapamycin and thus mediated by the mTORc1 pathway.

For human studies, supplementation of 0. In weightlifters given a training protocol do as many reps as possible until fatigue, for 8 sets , ingestion of 8g citrulline malate alongside 10g sucrose sucrose also supplied to placebo condition failed to improve performance on sets but progressively increased the amount of reps conducted relative to placebo from This study also noted that while Muscle soreness has been noted to be reduced following weight training with 8g citrulline malate by A trial in incline treadmill walking to fatigue with either 3g citrulline acutely or 9g over 24 hours three doses of 3g actually noted a reduction in time to exhaustion In trained athletes given 6g citrulline malate prior to a prolonged km cycling test, the exercise-induced increase in growth hormone appeared to be increased; when measured immedaitely after exercise, the citrulline group had IGF-1 concentrations after 0.

Insulin has been found to be unaltered by 0. In men with erectile dysfunction as assessed by weak erections assessed b yerectile hardness score [67] given 1,mg citrulline daily two doses of mg for one month was able to benefit half of the 24 patients assessed as assessed by 'very satisfied' with treatment while there was merely a 8. Branched Chain Amino Acids BCAAs are a group of three amino acids leucine , isoleucine , and valine which are involved with skeletal muscle synthesis and degradation.

Of these three, leucine is commonly said to be the most 'important' since it is the prime mediator of muscle protein synthesis and that appears to be the most common reason people supplement BCAAs. When looking at citrulline ingestion at rest, 0.

During exercise, 6g citrulline in trained cyclists prior to a km cycling test noted that plasma BCAAs were reduced relative to control and attributed to increase utilization of BCAAs for fuel. Similar to how citrulline is able to restore muscle protein synthesis rates [59] [60] and muscular function [61] during aging and malnourishment in rats via mTORc1 dependent means, [62] [63] citrulline itself is a weak agonist enough that it could be false positive from sensitizing mTORc1 [59].

Conversely, leucine itself is a potent activator of mTORc1 activity. L-citrulline increases levels of nitric oxide NO , a vasodilator. Although NO effects are potent, the extent of vasodilation is limited by the short half life of NO, which is broken down by oxidation soon after it is formed.

In vitro studies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated that L-citrulline 0. Consistent with in vitro and rat studies, subjects taking GSH along with L-citrulline had significantly higher nitrite and nitric oxide levels 30 minutes after exercise relative to placebo or L-citrulline alone.

Nitrate is a small nitric oxide donor that is the main bioactive of beetroot juice. Serum nitrite reduced form of nitrate appears to be increased during exercise following consumption of 6g citrulline malate, which is thought to be an indicator of increase nitric oxide production.

Sodium bicarbonate baking soda is an ergogenic supplement that is reported to increase physical performance, and although overall it is somewhat unreliable in doing so it appears to be effective for short duration activities characterized by metabolic acidosis 'the burn'.

Citrulline administration appears to promote ureogenesis production of urea and secondary to this promoted the renal resorption of bicarbonate; [52] it is thought that citrulline may promote a slight buffering effect via preserving bicarbonate. A study assessing synergism between citrulline and bicarbonate supplementation is currently not available.

As simvastatin, [70] atorvastatin, [71] [72] and lovastatin [73] bioactive in red yeast rice have all been noted to increase eNOS, [71] iNOS, [71] [73] and nNOS [72] it is thought that this is a common mechanisms to statin drugs in general. In humans, 15g citrulline taken acutely does not appear to cause diarrhea or intestinal upset [23] which is notably different than both ornithine and arginine that may cause diarrhea at 10g dosages when taken in boluses [74] [75] due to limited absorption of these amino acids which then proceed to the colon to cause osmotic diarrhea.

Please click here if you are not redirected within a few seconds. This page is regularly updated, to include the most recently available clinical trial evidence. History Research analysis by Kamal Patel and verified by the Examine. Last updated on Jun 14, Grade Level of Evidence Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies Uncontrolled or observational studies only.

The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results. The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect. Scientific research does not always agree.

There do not appear to be any significant influences of supplemental citrulline on blood glucose concentrations. Most studies note that there is no significant change in insulin concentrations, although a lone study not replicated suggested that the exercise-induced increase in insulin was suppressed with citrulline.

As this study also noted performance degradation, it may be a flaw. The decrease in fatigue during exercise is thought to underlie most of the benefit seen with training capacity work volume , although in men who self-report fatigue issues supplemental citrulline appears to help with that as well independent of exercise.

Nitric oxide derivatives nitrate and urinary cGMP, since nitric oxide itself is hard to measure these biomarkers are indicative of nitric oxide production appear to be reliably increased following oral consumption of citrulline supplementation. Citrulline can increase plasma arginine concentrations, and due to acting as a resevoir of arginine it is actually more effective overall at increasing plasma arginine than arginine itself acute peaks are still observed to a higher level with arginine supplementation.

The increase in work capacity seen with citrulline supplementation appears to be time dependent. While there are no inherent and immediate effect, the reduction of fatigue later in a weight lifting workout causes a relative increase that has at least one doubled reps conducted on set 8 of exhaustive exercise. An increase in blood flow is noted with citrulline supplementation in persons with impaired blood flow. A decrease in blood pressure is noted secondary to increasing plasma arginine and thus increasing nitric oxide , but this blood pressure reduction may only occur in those with hypertension or prehypertension.

A slight increase in creatinine has been noted with citrulline supplementation, practical relevance unknown. An increase in growth hormone has been noted with exercise, but not at rest. Practical significance of this information is unknown, since Arginine supplementation has unreliable effects itself. Neutrophil oxidative burst post-workout appears to be enhanced when the exercise is preloaded with citrulline supplementation.

Although acute usage does not appear to influence plasma glutamine, a week of high dose supplementation 0.

Summary of Creatine